Analysis: Which legislators had the most (and fewest) bills passed in the 2021 session?

Democrats controlled both houses of the Legislature during the 2021 session, and hundreds of high-profile Democratic measures sailed through the Assembly and Senate while a vast majority of Republican-backed measures failed to make much headway in the legislative process.

Out of 605 bills introduced and sponsored by a lawmaker this session, Democratic legislators had 63 percent of their bills and resolutions pass out of the Legislature, compared to just 18 percent for Republicans. Those in the majority party were able to pass priority measures, including bills establishing the “Right to Return,” a public health insurance option and permanent expanded mail voting, while many priorities for Republicans, such as a voter ID law, were killed without so much as a hearing.

Which lawmakers had the most success passing their bills? Which lawmakers were least successful? How did Assembly members fare compared to senators?

The Nevada Independent analyzed all bills and resolutions that were both introduced and primarily sponsored by a lawmaker and examined which of those bills passed out of the Legislature and which ones died. Of those 605 bills, 267 (44 percent) were approved by members of the Assembly and Senate, while the remaining 338 (56 percent) were left in the graveyard of the legislative session.

Those 605 measures make up only a portion of the 1,035 bills and resolutions introduced during the session — others were sponsored by committees, constitutional officers such as the secretary of state or governor, or helped implement the state budget. The 2021 session also saw fewer measures introduced than previous sessions, as the 2019 and 2017 sessions each saw closer to 1,200 bills and resolutions introduced.

State law limits the number of bills that can be introduced by any individual lawmaker — incumbent senators and Assembly members can request 20 and 10 bill draft requests, respectively, while newly-elected legislators are limited to six bills in the Assembly and 12 in the Senate. Legislative leadership for both the majority and minority parties are also allowed to introduce additional bills beyond the normal limits.

The analysis revealed that Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui (D-Las Vegas) and Sen. Chris Brooks (D-Las Vegas) led their caucuses with the highest rate of bill passage, while Assembly members Jill Tolles (R-Reno) and P.K. O'Neill (R-Carson City) were the only Republicans who had more than half of their bills passed out of the Legislature. Eight Republican legislators ended the session with zero bills passed.

A previous analysis of votes during the 2021 session revealed that most bills passed with bipartisan support, as more than half of all votes included no opposition. But that trend was largely driven by Democrats in the majority passing their priorities while not advancing nearly as many Republican bills, with 175 more Democrat-backed measures passing out of the Legislature than measures introduced by Republicans.

The guide below explores the results of our analysis, examining the successes and failures of both parties and of individual lawmakers this session.

We’ve double-checked our work to make sure we’ve counted every vote and hearing, but if you spot something off or think a bill was missed or improperly noted, feel free to email sgolonka@thenvindy.com.

How did Democrat-sponsored legislation fare? Did any Republican lawmakers find success?

Though hundreds of the more than 1,000 bills and resolutions introduced during the session were sponsored by Democrat-controlled committees, there were only 350 measures specifically sponsored and introduced by a lawmaker from the majority party.

Many were headline-grabbing progressive bills that drew staunch Republican opposition, including expanding permanent mail-in voting (AB321) and setting up Nevada to become one of the first states to have a public health insurance option starting in 2026 (SB420).

Of the 350 bills from Democratic lawmakers, 221 (63.1 percent) passed out of both houses. However, Assembly Democrats fared slightly better than their Senate counterparts, with 65 percent of their bills passing compared with 60 percent for those in the Senate Democratic Caucus.

Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro on the fourth day of the 81st session of the Legislature in Carson City on Thursday, Feb. 4, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

The success rate of bills introduced by Republican lawmakers was dismal in comparison.

Members of the Assembly Republican caucus had 27 of their 126 introduced measures (21 percent) pass out of both houses, while Senate Republicans had 19 of their 129 (15 percent) pass out of the Legislature. The majority of Republican-backed measures were not even given a chance by the majority party, as 56 percent of 255 bills and resolutions introduced by Republican legislators never received an initial committee hearing.

Failed Republican-backed bills included an effort to create a bipartisan redistricting commission (SB462), a measure requiring voters to provide proof of identity (SB225) and a bill that aimed to limit the number of legislative actions allowed per session (AB98).

Among the 46 Republican-sponsored measures that passed out of the Legislature were a variety of health care-related bills, including legislation from Sen. Joe Hardy (R-Boulder City) that appropriated state funds to the Nevada Health Service Corps for encouraging certain medical and dental practitioners to practice in underserved areas (SB233). Lawmakers also approved a measure from Assembly Minority Leader Robin Titus (R-Wellington) authorizing the Board of Regents to waive fees for family members of National Guard members who reenlist (AB156).

Senate Minority Leader James A. Settelmeyer, left, and Senator Joe Hardy on the fourth day of the 81st session of the Legislature in Carson City on Thursday, Feb. 4, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

While Republicans fared far worse, Democratic lawmakers still had more than a third of their bills fall victim to the legislative process.

Some bills were overwhelmed by backlash, such as SB452, a bill that aimed to grant casino resorts greater authority to ban firearms on their premises but was opposed by a broad coalition of Republicans, gun right advocates and criminal justice reform organizations and failed to advance out of the Assembly. 

Other bills were watered down or axed after lawmakers deemed there was not enough time to consider the effects of a measure. Such was the case for AB161, a bill that started as a ban on the state’s “summary eviction” process, then was amended into a legislative study on the process but still never received a floor vote. Some measures fell just shy of the support they needed, including AB387, an attempt to license midwives that fell one vote shy of a two-thirds majority in the Senate on the final day of the session.

Which lawmakers were most prolific? Which lawmakers introduced the fewest bills?

Although Democratic lawmakers significantly outpaced Republican lawmakers in getting their bills passed out of both houses of the Legislature, the number of bills introduced by each legislator remained similar between the two parties.

On average, lawmakers from the majority party introduced 9.2 measures during the 2021 session, compared to 10.2 for lawmakers in the minority party. 

Those who led their parties in introductions were typically house leaders or more experienced lawmakers.

In the Assembly, Speaker Jason Frierson (D-Las Vegas) topped the rest of his party with 18 bills introduced and sponsored, while Minority Floor Leader Titus had the most bills introduced and sponsored of anyone in the Assembly Republican caucus with 14.

Assembly Minority Leader Robin Titus speaks to Assembly Speaker Jason Frierson inside the Legislature on Monday, March 15, 2021 in Carson City. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Minority Leader James Settelmeyer (R-Minden) introduced and sponsored 25 bills, which was the most of any legislator during the session.

Four other Senators also stood above the pack: Sen. Dallas Harris (D-Las Vegas) led Democrats with 23 introductions, while Sen. Pat Spearman (D-North Las Vegas) and two Republican senators, Hardy and Keith Pickard (R-Henderson), rounded out the top with 20 bills each.

Assemblywoman Tracy Brown-May (D-Las Vegas), who was appointed by the Clark County Commission on Feb. 2, 2021 to fill the seat of Democratic former Assemblyman Alex Assefa, who resigned amid an investigation into whether he met residency requirements, was the only lawmaker who did not introduce a single piece of legislation this session.

The others at the bottom of the list — Assembly members Elaine Marzola (D-Henderson), Maggie Carlton (D-Las Vegas) and Richard McArthur (R-Las Vegas), and Sens. Fabian Doñate (D-Las Vegas) and Ira Hansen (R-Sparks) — introduced three bills each. Doñate was appointed to fill the seat of former Sen. Yvanna Cancela (D-Las Vegas), and introduced three of her bill draft requests submitted prior to the start of the session.

Which legislators had the most success with their bills?

Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui (D-Las Vegas) had more success getting her bills passed than any Nevada lawmaker during the 2021 session, as all eight bills that she introduced and sponsored passed out of both houses of the Legislature.

Jauregui had one bill that was passed only with the support of her own party members in both houses. AB286, which bans so-called “ghost guns” and other firearm assembly kits that don’t come equipped with serial numbers, passed through the Assembly and Senate along party lines. 

Other bills Jauregui introduced included measures focused on the environment and residential properties, as well as AB123, which increases fees on special Vegas Golden Knights license plates to help give more funds to charities.

Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui arrives on the first day of the 81st session of the Legislature in Carson City on Monday, Feb. 1, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Five other Assembly Democrats, all based out of Southern Nevada, had at least 80 percent of their measures pass out of both houses, including Assembly Speaker Frierson. Frierson, who saw 15 of his 18 sponsored measures pass, introduced several high-profile Democratic measures, including a pair of big election bills: AB126, which moves the state to a presidential primary system instead of a caucus-based system, and AB321, which permanently expands mail-in voting. 

Other bills introduced by the Assembly leader that passed out of the Legislature included a measure requiring a three-day grace period before landlords can charge late fees for overdue rent (AB308) and a bill allowing college athletes to profit off of their name and likeness (AB254). Frierson was also the primary sponsor of AB484, which authorizes the Department of Employment, Training and Rehabilitation (DETR) to use $54 million in federal funds to modernize the state’s outdated unemployment insurance system.

Frierson had only three bills that did not pass out of the Legislature, including a controversial measure that would have allowed for the Washoe and Clark County school boards to be partially appointed (AB255).

Other lawmakers to have at least 80 percent of their measures pass out of both houses were Assembly members Venicia Considine (D-Las Vegas), Steve Yeager (D-Las Vegas), Daniele Monroe-Moreno (D-North Las Vegas) and Howard Watts (D-Las Vegas).

Considine had five of her six introduced measures pass both houses with significant bipartisan support, including a measure that replaces the gendered language for crimes of sexual assault with gender-neutral language (AB214). 

Yeager saw eight of ten introduced bills pass, including AB341, which authorizes the licensing of cannabis consumption lounges, though he also presented several other, sometimes controversial, measures as chair of the Assembly Judiciary Committee. He presented AB400, a bill that removes “per se” limits on non-felony DUIs involving marijuana and that passed along party lines out of the Assembly. And he presented AB395, the death penalty bill that was scrapped by Democratic lawmakers in the Senate.

Though Monroe-Moreno had four of her five introduced bills pass out of both houses, including a measure that reduces the criminal penalties for minors found in possession of alcohol or small amounts of marijuana (AB158), she was also the sponsor of one of the few measures to fail to advance out of the Legislature because it failed to achieve a needed two-thirds majority. Her bill AB387, which would have established a midwifery licensure board, fell one vote shy of the two-thirds majority in the Senate.

Watts, a second-term assemblyman, sparked a variety of partisan disagreements throughout the session, as six of his ten introduced bills passed out of the Assembly with zero Republican support (Watts had eight bills pass out of both chambers). Those measures ranged broadly from a pair of environment-focused measures to a bill that bans offensive or racially discriminatory language and imagery, names, logos or mascots in Nevada schools (AB88).

In the Senate, only three legislators had more than two-thirds of their introduced measures pass out of both houses: Chris Brooks (D-Las Vegas), Roberta Lange (D-Las Vegas) and Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro (D-Las Vegas).

Sen. Chris Brooks on the final day of the 81st session of the Legislature on Monday, May 31, 2021, in Carson City. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Brooks was the most successful of the bunch, getting five of his six introduced bills passed, including SB448, an omnibus energy bill expanding the state’s transmission infrastructure that was passed out of the Assembly on the final day of the session. With a larger number of introductions (13), Lange had twice as many bills passed as Brooks (10), covering a wide range of topics from health care to employment to a bill permanently authorizing curbside pickup at dispensaries (SB168).

The majority leader also succeeded in passing a higher percentage of her bills than most of her Senate colleagues, as 12 different Cannizzaro-sponsored bills made their way to the governor’s office. Those measures were met with varying degrees of bipartisan support, as a bill requiring data brokers to allow consumers to make requests to not sell their information passed with no opposition (SB260), while a bill barring the suspension of driver’s licenses for the nonpayment of fees received mixed support from Republicans in both chambers (SB219). Another bill, SB420, which enacts a state-managed public health insurance option, passed along party lines in both the Senate and Assembly.

A few Assembly Republicans stood above the pack, as Assembly members Jill Tolles (R-Reno), P.K. O’Neill (R-Carson City), Lisa Krasner (R-Reno) and Tom Roberts (R-Las Vegas) were the only members of their party to have at least half of their bills pass out of both houses.

Tolles, who was more likely to side with Democrats on close votes during the session than any other Republican lawmaker, found the most success of the group, as four of the six bills she introduced and sponsored were sent to the governor. Those bills that passed were met with broad bipartisan support, such as AB374 — that measure, which establishes a statewide working group in the attorney general’s office aimed at preventing and reducing substance use, passed unanimously out of both houses. The third-term legislator did introduce some bills that were killed by Democrats, such as AB248, which sought to allow "partisan observers" to watch over elections at polling places.

Assemblywoman Jill Tolles on the final day of the 81st session of the Legislature on Monday, May 31, 2021, in Carson City. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Four of O’Neill’s seven bills were sent to the governor. One allows the Stewart Indian School Cultural Center and Museum to designate certain buildings and grounds of the former boarding school for Native children for special events and authorizes the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages at such events (AB270). O’Neill was the only Republican present at a bill signing event for Native-focused legislation, after many of those bills passed with bipartisan support.

Half of Krasner and Roberts’ bills passed out of the Legislature, with each lawmaker introducing and sponsoring eight measures during the session.   

Nearly all four of Krasner’s bills that made it out of both chambers attracted unanimous votes, including AB143, which creates a statewide human trafficking task force and a plan for resources and services delivered to victims. Another well-received bill, AB251, seals juvenile criminal records automatically at age 18 and allows offenders to petition the court for the expungement or destruction of their juvenile records for misdemeanors. Both AB143 and AB251 have been signed by the governor.

Roberts, who was among the Republicans most likely to cross party lines and vote contrary to the majority of his caucus, had several bills sent to the governor with strong bipartisan support, including AB319, which establishes a pilot program for high school students to take dual credit courses at the College of Southern Nevada. Another of his four successful bills was AB326, which is aimed at curbing the illicit cannabis market.

Success for Republican senators in passing bills was more rare.

Sen. Ira Hansen (R-Sparks) had one bill sent to the governor and two bills killed without a hearing, giving him a higher percentage of bills passed (33 percent) than any other member of his caucus. Hansen’s one successful measure, SB112, aligns Nevada law with federal law regarding the administration of certain products for livestock. One of Hansen’s failed bills included an attempt to prohibit police officers from using surveillance devices without a warrant, unless there were pressing circumstances that presented danger to someone’s safety (SB213).

Sen. Ben Kieckhefer (R-Reno) was the second most successful member of his caucus in terms of getting bills passed, as three of the 14 measures (21 percent) he introduced passed out of both houses, including a measure establishing an esports advisory committee within the Gaming Control Board (SB165). But many of the measures introduced by Kieckhefer still failed, including a resolution to create an independent redistricting commission to conduct the reapportionment of districts (SJR9).

Only three other members of the Senate Republican caucus, including Minority Leader Settelmeyer, Hardy and Pete Goicoechea (R-Eureka), had at least 20 percent of their introduced measures pass fully out of the Legislature.

Which legislators had the least success with their bills?

Despite Democrats controlling both legislative chambers, a handful of Democratic lawmakers still had less than half of their sponsored measures sent off to the governor’s office.

In the Assembly, five members of the Democratic caucus failed to have 50 percent of their bills advance out of both houses, including Assemblywoman Michelle Gorelow (D-Las Vegas), who rounded out the bottom of the list as just one of her eight introduced bills passing out of the Legislature. Though that one successful bill — AB189, which establishes presumptive eligibility for pregnant women for Medicaid — garnered bipartisan support, many of Gorelow’s introduced measures failed to even receive an initial committee vote. Those failed bills included multiple more health care-focused measures, including an effort to require certain health plans to cover fertility preservation services (AB274).

The others in the caucus to have more than half of their bills fail were Assembly members Bea Duran (D-Las Vegas), David Orentlicher (D-Las Vegas), Edgar Flores (D-Las Vegas) and Cecelia Gonzalez (D-Las Vegas), who each had between 33 and 43 percent of their bills passed.

Duran found mixed success with her bills, getting three of her seven introduced measures passed, including a bill that requires all public middle schools, junior high schools and high schools to offer free menstrual products in bathrooms (AB224), but seeing four others fail, including one requiring public schools implement a survey about sexual misconduct (AB353).

One of Orentlicher’s five bills was among a small group that failed to advance at a mid-May deadline for second committee passage. The measure, AB243, would have required courts to consider whether a defendant is younger than 21 when deciding a sentence and failed to clear the deadline after previously passing out of the Assembly along party lines. Orentlicher introduced five bills, but only two passed out of both chambers.

While Flores introduced several measures that received broad unanimous support throughout the session, such as a measure that established a new, simpler Miranda warning for children (AB132), he also proposed several controversial measures that failed to advance out of the Assembly. One of those bills, AB351, would have allowed terminally ill patients to self-administer life-ending medication, and another, AB131, would have required all uniformed police officers to wear body cameras when interacting with the public. Only four of Flores’s ten introduced bills passed out of both legislative chambers.

Assemblymen Edgar Flores, center, and Glen Leavitt, left, speak inside the Legislature on Tuesday, March 9, 2021 in Carson City. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Gonzalez, a freshman, had four of her six introduced bills die at different times over the course of the session. Two of her bills died without ever being heard. Another bill she introduced (AB151) was never voted on by the Assembly because a Cannizzaro-sponsored bill took almost the same approach in barring the suspension of driver’s licenses for the nonpayment of fees. 

Gonzalez even had one piece of legislation, AB201, fail in its second house. That bill, which would have required more tracking and reporting on use of criminal informants, failed to advance out of a Senate committee after passing out of the Assembly along party lines.

Sen. James Ohrenschall (D-Las Vegas) was the only member of his caucus to have more than half of his bills fail. Though seven of his sponsored measures passed out of the Legislature, eleven other bills and resolutions from Ohrenschall failed to advance. Those bills often focused on the criminal justice system, including a measure that aimed to eliminate the death penalty for people who are convicted of first degree murder (SB228), though some stretched beyond that scope, such as an attempt to make Nevada the first state with an opt-out organ donation system (SB134) that failed to be voted out of committee.

Across the Senate and Assembly, eight Republican lawmakers had zero bills pass out of the Legislature. Those eight were Assembly members Alexis Hansen (R-Sparks), Annie Black (R-Mesquite), Andy Matthews (R-Las Vegas), Jill Dickman (R-Sparks), Jim Wheeler (R-Minden) and Richard McArthur (R-Las Vegas) and Sens. Carrie Buck (R-Henderson) and Pickard.

All eight of those Republicans were also among the least likely in their party to break from the majority of their caucus and vote with Democrats on legislation.

State Senator Keith Pickard on the fourth day of the 81st session of the Legislature in Carson City on Thursday, Feb. 4, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Those eight legislators introduced 70 measures combined, of which 58 died without ever receiving a committee hearing. Pickard was particularly unsuccessful, as he introduced 20 bills, and only one received a committee hearing before failing to advance past the first committee passage deadline in early April. The Henderson-based senator was previously derided by Democratic lawmakers, after backing out of a deal with Senate Democrats centered on a mining tax during one of the 2020 special sessions.

When were bills heard and when did they pass?

Throughout the session, lawmakers often waited until the latest possible days to complete the work needed for certain legislative deadlines.

In the week leading up to the first major deadline — bills and resolutions without an exemption were required to have passed out of their first committee by April 9 — lawmakers voted 336 bills out of committee. In the roughly nine weeks prior to that, only 236 bills were passed out of their first committee.

The other deadlines of the legislative session followed a similar pattern.

In the week leading up to and the week including the first house passage deadline (April 20), 340 bills received a vote in their first house, while just 71 bills were voted out of their first house in the 10 previous weeks.

The busiest week of the session was the week ending May 21, which included the second house passage deadline (May 20). During that week, 337 bills and resolutions were voted out of their second house, while a couple hundred more measures were acted on in some other way, including committee hearings, committee votes and first house votes.

The final shortened weekend of the session, stretching from May 29 through May 31, was also chock-full of legislative action, as lawmakers passed more than 150 bills out of their second house during those three final days.

Analysis: Which lawmakers were least likely to toe the party line?

From permanent expanded mail voting to the state public health option, the 2021 legislative session saw no shortage of headline-grabbing partisan disagreements — but a look at actual vote totals reveals that the vast majority of bills were passed with at least some bipartisan buy-in.

Out of nearly 1,200 votes on bills and resolutions during the 120-day session, 625 (53 percent) were passed with no lawmakers in opposition, and a small minority of 52 votes (4 percent) included just one “nay” vote. Meanwhile, roughly 100 votes (8 percent) happened strictly along party lines. 

But there was a fourth, significant group of votes: on more than 150 votes, a minority of Republican lawmakers broke with their caucus and voted with Democrats, helping to pass bills ranging from marijuana DUI reform to expanded environmental protections.

So which Republicans were the most likely to side with Democrats?

The Nevada Independent analyzed and tallied every bill that received a recorded vote in at least one house where less than half of Republican caucus members supported the measure — a tally that includes 49 votes in the Senate and 104 in the Assembly. The analysis included any bill that received four or fewer votes from the nine-member Senate Republican Caucus and any bill that received seven or fewer votes from the 16-member Assembly Republican Caucus.

Instead of looking more broadly at all votes taken during the legislative session, focusing the analysis on the roughly 150 votes where less than half of Republican caucus members voted in favor of a particular bill offers a better view of which individual Republican lawmakers were most likely to cross party lines. 

Because Democrats control both the Assembly and state Senate, no Republican-sponsored bills with even a whiff of partisanship made it to a full floor vote, though a handful of Democratic lawmakers proved willing to buck their party on a smaller number of votes.

The analysis reveals that Sens. Ben Kieckhefer (R-Reno) and Heidi Seevers Gansert (R-Reno) were the most likely to break with their caucus and vote with Democrats in the state Senate. On the Assembly side, Jill Tolles (R-Reno), Tom Roberts (R-Las Vegas) and Melissa Hardy (R-Henderson) most often broke with the rest of their caucus and sided with Democrats.

The guide below aims to take a look at what kinds of issues were at play when Republicans chose to break with the majority of their caucus on a particular issue — including high-profile votes on a new mining tax and a Democrat-backed effort to change Nevada to a presidential primary state.

We’ve double-checked our work to make sure we’ve counted every vote, but if you spot something off or think a vote wasn’t counted, feel free to email sgolonka@thenvindy.com.

SENATE

Ben Kieckhefer: 36

Heidi Seevers Gansert: 33

Kieckhefer and Seevers Gansert voted with Democrats and against the majority of the Republican caucus 30 times, including eight times as the only two Republicans joining Democrats in support of a measure. Kieckhefer is termed out after the 2021 session and cannot run for re-election, and Seevers Gansert will not face voters until 2024 after winning her re-election race last year.

Both lawmakers broke party lines to join all Democrats in favor of AB115, allowing multiple parents to adopt a child, and AB181, a bill aimed at improving mental health parity and reporting on cases of attempted suicide.

Kieckhefer and Seevers Gansert were also among four Republican senators who voted with Democrats in favor of AB495, a bill that creates a new excise tax on the gross revenues of gold and silver companies, estimated to bring in an extra $150 million to $170 million a biennium for education. As the measure passed in the waning days of the session, Kieckhefer said the benefits of the bill outweighed the drawbacks, and Seevers Gansert pointed to the enhanced education funding as reason for voting in favor. The bill required a two-thirds majority to pass, as it created a new tax.

Seevers Gansert and Kieckhefer rarely broke from each other when crossing party lines to vote with Democrats. In one instance, Seevers Gansert was the lone Republican who sided with Democrats on SB237, a bill aimed at giving more support to LGBTQ-owned businesses, while no other Republicans did so. Kieckhefer had no such votes.

State Senators Ben Kieckhefer and Heidi Seevers Gansert during the first day of the 81st session of the Legislature in Carson City on Monday, Feb. 1, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Pete Goicoechea: 20

Goicoechea joined Democrats as the lone Republican in support of AB148, which revises the application requirements for obtaining a permit to engage in an exploration project or mining operation.

He joined Kieckhefer and Seevers Gansert as the only members of their caucus to vote in support of AB126, which eliminates Nevada’s presidential caucus and replaces it with a primary election, and also aims to make the state first in the presidential primary calendar — ahead of New Hampshire and Iowa.

Goicoechea also broke from the majority of the Republican caucus to vote with Democrats in support of a few environment-related measures, including AB146, which expands efforts to mitigate water pollution, and AB71, which makes rare plant and animal locations confidential. The Eureka Republican is in his final term of office after winning re-election in 2020, and cannot run again in 2024.

Joe Hardy: 17

Hardy, who is termed out after this session, voted as the lone Republican in support of bills in the Senate more often than any other member of his caucus.

The Boulder City-based lawmaker joined Democrats as the only Republican in favor of SB61, which creates the Nevada Committee of Vendors Who Are Blind, as well as three other Democrat-sponsored bills — including a measure backed by Assembly Speaker Jason Frierson (D-Las Vegas), AB308, which requires a three-day grace period before landlords can charge late fees for overdue rent.

Hardy was one of three Republicans in the Senate who voted in favor of AB400, which removes “per se” limits on the amount of marijuana metabolite that can be in a person’s blood to trigger a DUI, though the limits remain when someone is facing a felony charge. He was also one of two Republicans in the caucus to back another marijuana-related bill, SB122, which requires occupational training for employees of cannabis establishments.

State Senator Joe Hardy on the fourth day of the 81st session of the Legislature in Carson City on Thursday, Feb. 4, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Scott Hammond: 14

The northwest Las Vegas Valley lawmaker was one of four Republican senators who voted in support of a new tax on the mining industry. Hammond previously said he would vote in support of the bill, AB495, “for all of our state’s students.”

Hammond also joined Democrats in voting in favor of AB296, which allows victims of ‘doxing’ to bring a civil action to recover damages, and SB450, which allows school districts to use excess revenue from existing tax rates to fund “pay as you go” capital improvement projects, such as remodels and needed facility upgrades.

Keith Pickard: 6

Along with Kieckhefer, Seevers Gansert and Hammond, Pickard voted in favor of the new excise tax on the mining industry through AB495, also citing increased education funding as reason for his support.

Pickard was also one of three Republican senators who voted in favor of removing “per se” limits on non-felony DUIs involving marijuana (AB400), and the Henderson-based legislator joined Kieckhefer and Seevers Gansert in voting in favor of raising the minimum age to buy tobacco products from 18 to 21, in line with federal law (AB59).

Ira Hansen: 5

Hansen was one of two Republican senators (along with Hardy) to record votes as the sole GOP member siding with Democrats on multiple votes.

Hansen was the only Republican who voted in favor of protecting the Spring Valley population of Rocky Mountain junipers, known as “swamp cedars” (AB171). Prior to the vote, Hansen had angered some Native advocates when he rebutted the historical accuracy of testimony shared by tribal leaders and elders.

He also was also the only member of his caucus to support SB349, which would have allowed unpackaged produce to be sold in farmers markets, but the legislation failed to advance in the Assembly.

Carrie Buck: 3

The freshman legislator rarely broke from the majority of the Republican caucus, only doing so to support an extension on school use of excess revenue for facility upgrades (SB450), cage-free eggs (AB399) and a clarification on registration requirements for lobbyists (AB110).

James Settelmeyer: 2

The Senate minority leader broke from the majority of his party less than any other Republican senator, only joining Democrats in support of two measures.

Settelmeyer joined Hardy and Pickard in support of removing “per se” limits on non-felony DUIs involving marijuana (AB400) and voted with Kieckhefer, Pickard and Seevers Gansert in support of a measure revising the issuance of orders for protection against high-risk behavior (SB6).

ASSEMBLY

Jill Tolles: 92

Tom Roberts: 90

Among Assembly Republicans, Tolles and Roberts were the most likely to cross party lines and vote contrary to the majority of their caucus.

Out of the 104 votes in which a minority of the 16 Republican Assembly members joined Democrats in support, Tolles and Roberts voted together with Democrats 85 times, though only six of those votes featured no other Republicans in support.

Tolles and Roberts were the only two Republicans in the Assembly to vote in favor of the new mining tax (AB495) — giving the bill enough Republican votes to overcome the required two-thirds majority needed for a tax increase. Prior to the vote, both lawmakers spoke with The Nevada Independent about their rationale for the votes, stressing that they had gained concessions in exchange for their support and had an opportunity to improve education funding.

They were additionally the only members of their party to support other education-related measures, including an expansion of the core subjects contained within social studies in K-12 education (AB19) and a Democrat-sponsored bill to create the Task Force on Sexual Misconduct at Institutions of Higher Education (SB347).

Tolles and Roberts supported a wide range of Democrat-backed legislation, including measures focused on the economy, state government and criminal justice. The duo voted in support of a ban on race-based discrimination against certain hairstyles (SB327), a Frierson-backed effort to establish the Office of Small Business Advocacy (AB184) and a measure that doubles the fee on marriage licenses from $25 to $50 to better support sexual violence and domestic violence victim services in all counties (SB177).

Tolles has a history of voting more moderately than others in the Assembly Republican Caucus, and she was the only caucus member to join Democrats in support of legislation on multiple occasions. She was the only Assembly Republican to vote in favor of AB47, which gives the attorney general greater powers over mergers within the health care industry, and for AB382, an effort to license student loan servicers (that failed to receive a two-thirds majority). 

Though he was not joined by Tolles, Roberts (who has said he plans to run for Clark County sheriff in 2022) voted with several other Republicans in favor of bills authorizing the licensing of cannabis consumption lounges (AB341) and a resolution to remove the Board of Regents’ constitutional protection (SJR7).

Assemblywoman Jill Tolles on the final day of the 81st session of the Legislature on Monday, May 31, 2021, in Carson City. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Melissa Hardy: 82

The Henderson-based assemblywoman was the lone member of the Republican caucus who voted in favor of AB85, which authorizes the State Quarantine Officer to declare any weed to be noxious by regulation.

Hardy also backed a wide range of Democrat-backed efforts, including a variety of bills sponsored by Frierson including a bill that eliminates Nevada’s presidential caucus and replaces it with a primary election (AB126).

In dissenting from the majority of the Assembly Republican Caucus, Hardy voted the same as both Tolles and Roberts 46 times, including when all three — along with Assemblyman Glen Leavitt (R-Boulder City) — joined Democrats in support of AB486, which is meant to ensure more tenants are connected with rental assistance as eviction protections expire.

Glen Leavitt: 55

Though Leavitt sided with Democrats more frequently than most other Assembly Republicans, he rarely did so without support from several other caucus members. There was only one instance in which Leavitt joined Democrats without at least three other Republicans in support of the measure.

In that case, just two other Republicans joined Leavitt and Assembly Democrats in favor of a bill allowing the State Board of Cosmetology to license a new group of people designated as “advanced estheticians” (SB291).

Additionally, Leavitt was among a minority group of seven Republicans who supported a pair of education measures from Sen. Marilyn Dondero Loop (D-Las Vegas), including SB173, also referred to as the “Back on Track Act,” which calls on districts to create learning loss prevention plans and set up summer school programs, and SB151, which is aimed at improving teacher-to-student ratios.

Heidi Kasama: 52

The freshman assemblywoman from Las Vegas was the only Republican in either house who voted in support of a Department of Employment, Training and Rehabilitation-backed measure, SB75, that makes technical changes to the regular unemployment system, such as allowing more flexibility on when claimants are eligible for benefit extensions. Other Republicans voiced concerns that the bill did not go far enough in addressing issues with the system. 

Along with Hardy, Leavitt and Tolles, Kasama also voted with Democrats to pass AB356, which prohibits water-intensive decorative turf within medians, along roads and in business parks in Clark County.

Kasama and Hardy were also the only Republicans who voted in favor of banning the declawing of cats, though the measure, AB209, failed to advance through the Senate.

From left, Assemblywomen Cecelia González, Heidi Kasama and Melissa Hardy on the final day of the 81st session of the Legislature on Monday, May 31, 2021, in Carson City. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Lisa Krasner: 36

Krasner voted with a minority of her Republican colleagues on mostly Democrat-supported measures on three dozen occasions, including joining Tolles and Roberts in support of measures protecting swamp cedars in Spring Valley, AB171 and AJR4.

The Reno-based lawmaker also joined Tolles, Roberts, Hardy, Leavitt and Kasama in supporting SB448, an omnibus energy bill expanding the state’s transmission infrastructure that was passed out of the Assembly on the final day of the session.

Gregory Hafen: 30

The second-term legislator representing portions of Clark, Lincoln and Nye counties was one of only three Assembly Republicans who voted in favor of massively increasing fines for violating certain regulations from the Public Utilities Commission (SB18).

Hafen was also part of a limited group of Republicans who supported a change to the Live Entertainment Tax to exclude events held on behalf of a governmental entity (SB367) and a ban on race-based discrimination against certain hairstyles (SB327).

Alexis Hansen: 18

When Assemblywoman Alexis Hansen broke from her party majority and sided with Democrats, the Sparks-based lawmaker supported a wide range of measures, covering topics from health care to criminal justice to state government. Although she rarely joined fewer than four other party members in her dissent from the caucus, she was one of only two Republicans in the Assembly who voted to pass SB77, which exempts certain environmental impact reviews and discussions from the state’s open meeting law.

Robin Titus: 5

The minority floor leader rarely voted against the majority of her caucus, but Titus did join Democrats and several of her Republican colleagues in support of five bills, including a bill requiring state Medicaid plan coverage for doula services (AB256) and an appropriation of $5.4 million for upgrades to the Gaming Control Board’s IT systems (SB413).

Assembly members Robin Titus, Danielle Monroe Moreno and Steve Yeager return to the Assembly chamber after letting the Senate know they have adjourned sine die on the final day of the 81st session, Monday, May 31, 2021, in Carson City. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Annie Black: 3

Though she was absent or not voting for more than 100 votes after being censured by other members of the Assembly for violating COVID-19 protocols, Black was one of the least likely to side with Democrats on a bill. She was, however, one of four Republicans in the Assembly who voted in favor of authorizing the licensing of cannabis consumption lounges (AB341).

The Nevada Legislative Freedom Caucus

At the beginning of the session, six Republican Assembly members announced the formation of the Nevada Legislative Freedom Caucus, a coalition of state legislators dedicated to the values of constitutional conservatism. Those six lawmakers — Jill Dickman, John Ellison, Andy Matthews, Richard McArthur, P.K. O’Neill and Jim Wheeler — rarely sided with Democrats.

P.K. O’Neill: 19

One member of the Freedom Caucus sided with Democrats significantly more often than any other, as O’Neill was one of just four Assembly Republicans who supported a measure requiring employers to allow people to use sick leave to care for ill family members (AB190).

The Carson City-based assemblyman also backed several Democrat-sponsored bills, including SB166, which clarifies that a crime does not need to be committed by someone with different characteristics than the victim to be considered a hate crime, and SB177, which doubles the fee on marriage licenses from $25 to $50 to better support sexual violence and domestic violence victim services in all the counties.

Jim Wheeler: 6

Jill Dickman: 6

Andy Matthews: 5

John Ellison: 3

Richard McArthur: 3

Almost every member of the Freedom Caucus was among the list of Republicans least likely to side with Democrats, though some threw support behind a few high-profile measures.

Dickman and Matthews were among four Assembly Republicans who voted in favor of authorizing the licensing of cannabis consumption lounges (AB341). McArthur supported a bill aimed at increasing the availability of peer support counseling for emergency response employees (AB96). Wheeler voted to pass a measure that increases fees on special Vegas Golden Knights license plates to help give more funds to charities (AB123).

Which Republicans broke up unanimous votes?

While votes throughout the legislative session were dominated by unanimous vote counts and instances of mixed support and opposition from Republicans, nearly 5 percent of all votes included just one lawmaker in opposition.

In the Senate, Hansen stood above the pack, providing the only “nay” vote 15 times out of 26 such votes in that chamber. Hansen was the lone opponent in the Senate against measures authorizing curbside pickup at dispensaries (SB168), banning race-based discrimination against certain hairstyles (SB327), decriminalizing traffic tickets (AB116) and requiring employees within the juvenile justice system to complete implicit bias training (SB108).

State Senator Ira Hansen inside the Legislature on Friday, May 14, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

The other Senate Republicans who provided the only vote against a bill were Buck, who did so six times, Pickard, who did so twice, and Kieckhefer, who did so once. Buck was the only member of the caucus to not support a bill authorizing the sealing of someone’s criminal record after an unconditional pardon (AB219), and Pickard was the only Senate Republican to vote against an appropriation of $25 million for the UNLV Medical School (SB434). 

In the Assembly, there were 26 votes that included a single “nay” vote. Ellison led the Republican caucus with 10, including votes against bills requiring the Board of Regents to waive tuition and fees for Native students attending Nevada public colleges and universities (AB262), prohibiting law enforcement agencies from having arrest or ticket quotas (AB186) and expanding the continuing education courses that law enforcement officers are required to take to include crisis intervention (AB304).

Other Assembly Republicans who stood alone in their opposition included Black, who provided the only “nay” vote on a bill five times, and McArthur, who did so twice. Hafen and Kasama were each the lone Assembly opponent to a bill once.

Which Democrats dissented from their party?

While disagreement among Republicans was far more common in the Democrat-controlled Legislature, a few Democrats in both houses were more likely to depart from the caucus consensus than their colleagues from the same party.

Sen. Dina Neal (D-North Las Vegas) was more likely to vote differently from the rest of the Senate Democrats than any other member of her party. Neal was the lone opposition vote to AB435, which expands a Commerce Tax exemption to include trade shows, and SB150, which requires local governments to authorize tiny houses in certain zoning districts. She previously expressed concerns that tiny homes might depreciate housing values or exacerbate zoning disparities.

Neal also dissented from the Senate Democratic Caucus to vote with her Republican colleagues at least three times, including voting against a bill that would have granted casino resorts greater authority to ban firearms on their premises (SB452).

Sen. Dina Neal (D-North Las Vegas) speaks with Assembly members Howard Watts (D-Las Vegas) and Rochelle Nguyen on the first day of the 81st session of the Legislature in Carson City on Monday, Feb. 1, 2021. (David Calvert/The Nevada Independent)

Sens. Pat Spearman (D-North Las Vegas) and Mo Denis (D-Las Vegas) each disagreed with their fellow caucus members at least once. Spearman was the only Democrat who voted against a bill raising the minimum age to buy tobacco products from 18 to 21 (AB59), and Denis was the lone member of his party to not support an effort to license midwives (AB387). With Denis voting no, the bill fell one vote shy of the two-thirds majority it needed to pass.

In the Assembly, Brittney Miller (D-Las Vegas) was among the Democrats most likely to dissent from the majority position of the caucus. Miller was the lone opponent to a bill during two votes, including voting against SB172, which requires school districts and charter schools to develop programs for dual credits. Miller also joined a majority of Assembly Republicans in opposing a bill that prohibits homeowner associations from circumventing local ordinances when determining when construction can start in residential areas (AB249).

Assembly Ways and Means Committee Chair Maggie Carlton (D-Las Vegas) was the only Assembly member to oppose AB258, which clarifies existing law by requiring the trustees of the Clark County Library District to appoint an executive director, and AB477, which abolishes the DMV’s Revolving Account for the Assistance of the Department. She also joined the majority of the Assembly Republican Caucus in voting against SB190, which allows women to receive birth control through a pharmacy without a doctor’s visit.

Assembly Majority Floor Leader Teresa Benitez-Thompson (D-Reno) additionally dissented from her caucus on more than one occasion, as she provided the lone “nay” vote to AB435, which expands a Commerce Tax exemption to include trade shows. She was also joined by Assemblywoman Selena Torres (D-Las Vegas) in voting with a majority of Assembly Republicans against SB287, which formally recognizes UNLV and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) as land-grant institutions alongside UNR.

Deadline Day: Lawmakers approve ghost gun ban, medical debt protection and cage-free egg bills

Front of the Nevada Legislature building

Nevada lawmakers are moving to vote out dozens of bills including measures banning ghost guns, changing criminal justice procedures including bail and affecting education, cannabis and health care heading into one of the final major bill passage deadlines of the session.

Friday marks the deadline for bills to pass out of their second house, one of the biggest milestones before the Legislature is constitutionally required to adjourn no later than midnight on May 31. Ahead of the scheduled floor sessions, legislators teed up votes on nearly 170 measures that either need to pass by midnight or end up in the legislative graveyard.

Lawmakers haven’t saved everything for the last day — members of the Assembly and Senate have met late into the night throughout the week to finish processing a number of big-ticket bills: decriminalizing traffic tickets, sealing the records of evictions that happened during the pandemic, banning police ticket or arrest quotas and extending rollovers for school construction bond construction.

Friday isn’t the final stop on the legislative rollercoaster — lawmakers will spend the next 10 days zipping up final budget details, hashing out differences on amended bills and dealing with a rush of last-minute major policy items introduced in the waning days of the session, from the state public health insurance option to limiting firearm possession on casino property.

Here’s a look at some of the major bills that have passed so far this week. The Nevada Independent will update this story as additional bills are passed on Friday.

Medical debt collection

Collection agencies would be barred from certain aggressive practices and have to give more warning to people before they start collecting on medical debt under SB248, a bill backed by Sen. Marilyn Dondero Loop (D-Las Vegas) that passed the Assembly in a 28-13 vote. 

The bill requires collection agencies to notify a debtor by certified mail about the amount of debt, as well as when, why and where it was incurred, at least 60 days before the agency begins collection activities. The debtor can make payments during the notification period and it will not be reported to any credit reporting agency.

It also caps the fees collection agencies can charge to 5 percent of the base medical debt. Legal aid providers who presented the bill said they have seen instances where such fees were more than 100 percent.

The measure also bars collection agencies from taking “confession of judgment,” a practice that involves debtors signing away some of their rights and allows the collection agency to take steps such as garnishing the debtor’s wages.

Proponents argued that with about one in five Nevadans in collections for medical debt, and potentially more exposed to such situations if they lost insurance coverage during the pandemic, the protections could prevent many Nevadans from going into bankruptcy.

Marijuana DUI

Members of the Senate voted 15-6 to approve AB400, a bill that aims to update Nevada law to remove “per se” limits that specify how much marijuana metabolite in the blood would trigger a DUI. Proponents say the limits are an inaccurate indicator of impairment, because they can still be detected in the body long after a high wears off because of how marijuana is processed by the body differently than alcohol.

An amendment, however, has restored the per se limits in cases where someone is accused of a DUI causing death or substantial bodily harm. Supporters of the bill in its original form say the amendment keeps an unscientific measurement in the statute.

Removal of non-functional turf

Senators voted unanimously for AB356, a bill that would set in motion a plan to remove non-functional turf within the jurisdiction of the Southern Nevada Water Authority before the year 2027. Grass at single-family residences would be exempt.

The bill also requires the Legislative Committee on Public Lands to conduct a study on water conservation.

Cage-free eggs

Senators voted 16-5 in favor of AB399, a bill that prevents the sale of eggs in Nevada starting in 2024 if the hens aren’t in a cage-free housing system or are in such a system but without sufficient space to move around. Farms with fewer than 3,000 egg-laying hens are exempted from the requirement.

Members of the egg industry had lined up in support of the bill, saying cage-free eggs are the wave of the future and such a law would ensure uniformity in requirements across the region. Opponents, including Sen. Ira Hansen (R-Sparks) said he worried that the requirement would raise the price of eggs and harm low-income families.

Hairstyle protections

Under SB327, passed out of the Assembly on a 33-8 vote, hairstyles associated with particular races would be protected against discrimination.

Sponsored by Sen. Dina Neal (D-Las Vegas), the legislation extends statutory protection to hair textures and hairstyles such as braids, locs, twists and knots in the workplace and public schools.

The bill arrives as part of a nationwide movement to end hair discrimination. If passed, Nevada would join at least 10 other states that have passed similar legislation, including Washington, California and Colorado.

Paid-leave for health purposes

Members of the Assembly voted 30-11 to pass a measure that would require employers to provide paid leave for an employee receiving a COVID-19 vaccine.

The bill, SB209, would also allow an employee to use paid leave for any health reason, including for treating an illness and caregiving. Under the bill, the Legislative Committee on Health Care would also conduct a study during the 2021-2022 interim assessing the state’s response to the pandemic and making recommendations for legislation addressing future public health crises.

Tiger King bill

Members of the Assembly voted 35-6 for a so-called “Tiger King” bill nicknamed for the Netflix series on a wild animal collector. In its original form, the bill, SB344, prohibited owning and breeding wild animals, but it was significantly watered down.

Now, the bill prevents people who own a wild animal from allowing it to come into contact with the general public, including through allowing people to take a photo while holding the wild animal. 

Banning ‘ghost guns’

A contentious measure banning so-called “ghost guns” and other firearm assembly kits that don’t come equipped with serial numbers passed the Senate on a party-line vote.

The bill, AB286, is sponsored by Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui (D-Las Vegas), and would prohibit a person from possessing, purchasing, transporting or receiving any unfinished frame or receiver of a firearm, or assembling any firearm not imprinted with a serial number. An earlier version of the bill would have also prohibited individuals from carrying firearms on to casino property, but those provisions were removed and later resurfaced in SB452 — an emergency bill from Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro up for a hearing on Saturday.

Republicans opposed the bill — Sen. Ira Hansen (R-Sparks) said that law enforcement in Nevada believed few if any crimes were committed with ghost guns in the state.

“The idea that serial numbers somehow help reduce crime just doesn’t add up,” he said.

Those arguments failed to sway Democratic lawmakers.

“I think we have all as a society agreed that no one should be able to own a gun without a background check, and this bill brings us closer to that ideal,” Sen. Dallas Harris (D-Las Vegas) said. “End of statement.”

Lowering barriers to birth control

In a 28-13 vote, members of the Assembly passed out SB190, a bill allowing women to receive birth control through a pharmacy without a doctor’s visit. Assemblywomen Jill Tolles (R-Reno) and Melissa Hardy (R-Henderson) joined Democrats in support of the measure which supporters said will lower barriers to obtaining birth control.

Prohibiting ‘doxing’

Members of the Senate voted 15-6 to pass AB296, which allows victims of ‘doxing’ to bring a civil action to recover damages. ‘Doxing’ involves the unauthorized sharing of personal identifying information, such as an address, with the intent to cause harm or mental anguish.

The bill exempts the dissemination of certain information from liability for ‘doxing,’ including the reporting of conduct reasonably believed to be unlawful, information that depicts an elected officer acting in an official capacity, information gathered under the constitutionally protected rights of freedom of speech and assembly and good faith communications meant to further the right to petition or right to free speech in connection with public concern.

Several Republican lawmakers raised concerns that the bill contained exemptions for elected officials acting in an official capacity, or law enforcement “acting under the color of law.” 

Hate crime changes

Members of the Assembly voted 33-8 to pass SB166, a bill clarifying that a crime does not need to be committed by someone with different characteristics than the victim to be considered a hate crime, with qualifying characteristics including race, color, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation and gender identity.

The amended version of the bill passed out of the Assembly additionally requires a prosecuting attorney to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the perpetrator would not have committed the crime if not for the existence of such a characteristic.

The measure also expands the list of hate crimes for which a victim may bring forward a civil action to recover damages to include making threats or conveying false information concerning lethal weapons or acts of terrorism and threatening violence or death to a student or school employee.

Back on Track Act 

Assembly members passed SB173, dubbed the “Back on Track Act,” in a 33-8 vote. The bill calls on districts to create learning loss prevention plans and set up summer school programs, then authorizes them to request federal aid to fund the initiatives.

The bill allows schools to have the option for students to attend summer school in-person or virtually. The program aims to help students who may have fallen behind in school subjects or are credit deficient and those with disabilities or who are English learners.

Although the “Back on Track Act” goes into effect when approved, it is set to expire on Jan. 1, 2022. 

HOA debt collection

The Assembly voted 28-13 to pass SB186, a measure that would require collection agencies to file a report on collections related to homeowner’s associations (HOA). 

The bill would also prohibit collection agencies from collecting debts from a person who owes fees to an HOA if the collection agency is connected at all to the HOA, either through sharing the same owners or affiliates. 

The measure stipulates that if an HOA uses the foreclosure process, the home could not be sold to a person or entity involved in the process. It would also require an HOA to send its notices and communications by mail and email and that each HOA in a common-interest community with 150 or more units would need to establish an electronic portal that members could access.

Marriage license fees to help domestic violence victims

In a 32-9 vote, the Assembly passed SB177, which would double a fee on marriage licenses from $25 to $50 to better support sexual violence and domestic violence victim services in all the counties. 

The fees are expected to increase program funding from $2.5 million to $5 million annually. The bill states that 75 percent of the funding would go toward domestic violence victim services and 25 percent would go to sexual violence services. 

Land and water conservation

The Senate voted to pass AJR3, which would establish an effort to protect 30 percent of the nation’s lands and bodies of water by 2030. The vote was 12-9, along party lines.

The resolution points out that the state has lost more than 9 million acres of wildlife habitat in the  last two decades as a result of wildfires and only a small percentage of the land is currently protected. 

The conservation of land and water in the state may be accomplished through a combination of  federal and state actions, including designating or establishing wilderness areas, national parks and state parks. The resolution includes the designation of Spirit Mountain, known as Avi Kwa Ame, in Southern Nevada as a national monument, and permanent protection for the Desert National Wildlife Refuge from military expansion.

Previously, AJR3 passed the Assembly with a 26-16 vote, also along party lines. 

Allowing college athletes to profit off their likeness

College athletes in Nevada may soon be able to profit off of their name, image or likeness, after members of the Senate unanimously passed AB254 on Friday.

The bill would prohibit the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) from preventing students from using their likeness, name or image in sponsorships or for other professional services, with certain limits on what kinds of businesses that students can contract with. It also requires the Legislative Committee on Education to conduct an interim study on the issue.

Criminal justice changes

In an almost unanimous 38-1 vote, members of the Assembly passed out AB116 on Thursday, a bill that would decriminalize traffic tickets in Nevada (Assemblyman Greg Hafen (R-Pahrump) voted no). This is the fifth session in a row that Nevada lawmakers have considered the action, which proponents say would move the state away from the vestiges of a Victorian-era debtor’s prison but that local governments continue to oppose because of how it might affect their budgets. 

In a 40-0 vote on Thursday, members of the Assembly also passed out SB50, a bill introduced on behalf of the attorney general that would prohibit the issuance of no-knock warrants unless a sworn affidavit demonstrates that the underlying crime is a felony that could pose a significant and imminent threat to public safety or the warrant is necessary to prevent significant harm to the officer or another person.

Members of the Senate voted out several criminal justice reform measures late Thursday, including:

  • AB42, which implements a state Supreme Court order establishing a statutory right to a jury trial for a person charged with misdemeanor domestic violence that would lead to the accused losing firearm ownership rights.
  • AB104, which clarifies some of the existing procedures for awarding payments to the wrongfully convicted and expands the services a wrongfully convicted person may be compensated for, including housing assistance and financial literacy programs.
  • AB158, which significantly lightens penalties for minors who purchase or possess alcohol or cannabis, including prohibiting jail time and fees for first and second offenses.
  • AB186, which prohibits law enforcement agencies from requiring police officers to issue a certain number of traffic citations or make a certain number of arrests over a given period.
  • AB236, which raises the minimum age for candidates for state attorney general from 25 to 30 years of age, and requires the person to be a licensed attorney in good standing with the state Bar.

K-12 Education

Though much of the Legislature’s focus ahead of Friday’s deadline remains on passing bills out of their second house, members of the Senate also passed SB450, which allows school districts to use excess revenues from existing tax rates to fund Pay As You Go capital improvement projects, such as remodels and needed facility upgrades.

The measure passed on a 16-4 vote, with a few Republican senators upset with a lack of time to consider the measure, after the bill was introduced in the Legislature earlier in the week. Supporters have said the bill will not affect existing debt payments or reserve funds.

On Thursday, members of the Senate passed a variety of different K-12 focused Assembly bills, including:

  • AB109, which would require 80 percent of teachers at each charter school in the state to be licensed, including all teachers who teach a core academic subject.
  • AB195, which establishes an English language learner Bill of Rights that includes the right to a free and public education (regardless of and without disclosing immigration status) and the rights for a parent or guardian of an English learner to have an interpreter for significant interactions with school districts and to receive information about the student’s progress in the appropriate language.
  • AB235, which requires school districts to provide more help to students for filling out the Free Application for Federal Student Aid.

Higher education changes

Following the narrow failure of Question 1 in November, members of the Assembly on Tuesday voted 30-11 to pass SJR7, which attempts to take the same action as the failed ballot question by removing the Board of Regents from the state Constitution. Four Republicans, including a sponsor of the resolution, Tom Roberts (R-Las Vegas), joined all Democratic Assembly members in support, after the measure previously passed out of the Senate on a 20-0 vote. 

Proponents of the resolution have said that part of the reason Question 1 failed was because the language used was too complicated for voters to understand, and those supporters have also argued that removing the regents’ constitutional protection would create greater accountability. Opponents of the change, including members of the Board of Regents, have argued that the measure would do little to address higher education policy issues.

The resolution would need to be passed by the 2023 Legislature before going back to voters on the 2024 ballot.

Beyond deadline day, Gov. Steve Sisolak on Thursday signed a measure that would formally authorize the Board of Regents to “enter into an agreement to affiliate with a publicly or privately owned medical facility.” SB342 will in practice serve as a legislative seal of approval for regents as they seek to approve a major partnership between the UNR School of Medicine and Reno-based health care provider Renown Health. 

The affiliation agreement, which has been in various stages of drafting and negotiations since September of last year, will broadly integrate “medical education, clinical research and clinical practice activities between UNR Med and Renown,” according to a copy of the agreement shared with regents in April. 

Though the legislative blessing has been secured, the deal must still pass through the Board of Regents before final approval. Even so, the measure has found unanimous support from legislators, the governor, regents and higher education officials, and its approval sometime this summer appears all but assured. 

Economy & Business 

Members of the Senate voted along party-lines on Thursday to approve AB207, a bill by Assemblyman Howard Watts (D-Las Vegas) that would expand existing anti-discrimination laws affecting places of public accommodation to e-commerce.

Senators also voted 16-4 to approve AB184, a bill that temporarily creates an Office of Small Business Advocacy in the office of the lieutenant governor. Sisolak called for creation of the office in his 2021 State of the State address.

Banning racist school logos or mascots

Members of the Senate voted along party lines to pass AB88, a bill from Assemblyman Howard Watts (D-Las Vegas) that would require the board of trustees of each school district to ban offensive or racially discriminatory language or imagery in school names, logos or mascots.

The bill allows schools to adopt names, mascots or logos related to tribes as long as the tribe consents.

The measure would additionally ban counties and other local governments from using any alarms or sirens that were previously sounded on specific days or times to require people of a particular race, ethnicity, ancestry, national  origin or color to leave the area by a certain time. A siren of that kind is still used in Minden.

Pot for pets

In a 20-0 vote on Thursday, members of the Senate passed AB101 a bill that would give veterinarians the ability to administer hemp or CBD products containing no more than 0.3 percent of the psychoactive compound THC to an animal, or recommend those products to a pet owner.

Veterinarians and animal advocates have supported the measure, arguing that those products can help animals with anxiety, pain, cancer and arthritis and that the bill would stop the Nevada Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners from disciplining licensed veterinarians or facilities solely for administration or recommendation of a hemp or CBD product.

Record sealing for pandemic summary evictions

In a party-line 12-8 vote, Senate members approved AB141, a measure that would require courts to automatically seal eviction case court records for any summary eviction conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.

A previous version of the bill would have required landlords to give some long-term tenants additional advance notice before filing a no-cause eviction.

Reporter Jacob Solis contributed to this report.

Deadline Day: Banning ‘ghost guns,’ prohibiting cat declawing and bail reform all advance

At times with little debate, state lawmakers worked late into the night on Tuesday to pass more than 140 bills out of their house of origin prior to the Legislature’s second major bill passage deadline.

Lawmakers voted out measures including a tenant’s rights bill limiting application fees, a bill requiring eggs sold in Nevada be cage-free and a measure lowering penalties for youth caught possessing marijuana.

They also approved a contentious measure banning so-called “ghost guns,” after the bill was amended to remove sections giving businesses more rights to prohibit firearms on their property.

In total, lawmakers by Tuesday evening had approved 143 bills and resolutions, including 57 in the Senate and 86 in the Assembly. Legislators worked quickly — only one measure in the Assembly received any debate from lawmakers prior to a vote.

But Tuesday’s deadline is just one of many upcoming hurdles —  lawmakers will only have a few short weeks before the next major deadline to pass bills out of their second committee comes on May 14. 

However, a bill not passing by Tuesday doesn’t necessarily mean it has entered the legislative graveyard — dozens of bills have been granted exemptions from legislative deadlines, either because they have a fiscal effect on the state budget or because they were granted a waiver from those deadlines from legislative leadership.

That includes major election-related bills moving Nevada to an expanded mail-voting system and a measure aimed at moving the state up the presidential primary calendar — both of which were granted exemptions from legislative deadlines and moved to a budget committee on Monday.

Legislators were also busy on Monday, approving more than 40 bills including measures aimed at improving access to birth control, sealing records of evictions that happened during the COVID-19 pandemic, creating a statewide human trafficking victim support plan and shoring up the state’s battered unemployment insurance system. 

Here’s a look at major policies that passed out of floor sessions on Monday and Tuesday.

TUESDAY

Banning ‘ghost guns’

Despite a significant amendment removing language giving casino resorts and other major businesses more legal weight to prohibit firearm possession on their property, members of the Assembly still cast a party-line 26-16 vote to approve Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui’s AB286.

The bill  — which had drawn strong opposition from pro-gun groups including the National Rifle Association — now makes it illegal for a person to possess or sell any unfinished frame or reiever of a firearm, or any fireram not imprinted with a serial number. It’s intended to cut down on so-called “ghost guns,” which gun safety advocates say are used by criminals to obtain weapons that they otherwise wouldn’t be allowed to purchase.

Those arguments didn’t fly with Assembly Republicans, including Assemblyman Jim Wheeler (R-Minden), who said the bill didn’t have any protections for current gun kit owners and would turn them into criminals overnight.

“This bill is nothing but the camel’s nose under the tent, except this time, it's up to the neck,” he said. “This bill is another bite of the apple, and that apple is your Second Amendment rights being taken away, bite by bite.”

Jauregui said removing the portion of the bill empowering businesses to ban guns on premise was not ideal, but the bill’s focus was ghost guns and it was vital to pass the bill by deadline.

“We're still committed to working with stakeholders and my colleagues, because this discussion isn't over,” Jauregui told reporters Tuesday evening. “We have a big responsibility to the thousands and thousands of employees who work on the Strip every single day. They're entitled to a safe workplace.”

The bill now heads to the Senate, but it could coincide with recently announced plans by the Biden administration to also take action to limit the proliferation of so-called “ghost guns.”

Housing protections

Along a party line vote with Republicans in opposition, the Senate passed SB254, a bill that establishes fair housing procedures and strengthens anti-discrimination laws.

Sponsored by Sen. Dina Neal (D-Las Vegas), the bill would authorize the Nevada Housing Division to investigate housing discrimination and prohibit landlords from looking at arrest records of potential tenants.

The measure also prevents landlords from denying applicants because they rely on public assistance or have a disability.

“It is time that Nevada moves into the space where we actually stand behind our words of ‘second chances for citizens’ who have either served their time or who have not been further criminalized within the system and are not currently in jail,” Neal said. “Housing is a fundamental part of our lives.”

Sen. Ben Kieckhefer (R-Reno) said that though he appreciates the intent of the legislation, the bill’s requirement that the attorney general prosecute on behalf of individuals who experience discrimination goes too far.

“It’s just inappropriate and not the right role for the attorney general in the state of Nevada," Kieckhefer said.

Tenant protections

Senators voted on party lines, with Republicans opposed, for a bill that expands tenant protections, including barring landlords from taking an application fee from more than one prospective tenant at a time. SB218 is sponsored by Sen. Julia Ratti (D-Sparks).

It also limits landlords to fees allowed by statute or that are “actual and reasonable,” requires fees be disclosed on the first page of the lease agreement and may not increase fees without 45 days advance notice for rent paid monthly.

Restorative justice before expulsion

Senators voted 16-5 to approve SB354, which prohibits schools from expelling a student without first providing them with an action plan based on restorative justice. The bill defines restorative justice as “nonpunitive intervention and support” meant to improve the student’s behavior and remedy any harm they caused.

It calls for a statewide framework of restorative justice that could include training for school staff on psychology, trauma and chronic stress. The bill also requires the state to recognize in its accountability system schools that reduce their rates of suspension and expulsion.

Five Republicans opposed the bill.

Transparency on food delivery fees

Senators unanimously approved SB320, which requires services such as DoorDash and Uber Eats to clearly disclose fees applied to food orders.

The measure, which is sponsored by Sen. Dina Neal (D-North Las Vegas), was tempered from its original version but still requires conspicuous disclosure of what portions of the price are for the food, taxes, delivery fees and the average commission charged to the restaurant.

It limits commissions to 20 percent plus a credit card processing fee during the COVID-19 state of emergency, unless the restaurant agrees to pay the delivery platform more for services such as marketing.

Bail reform

Members of the Senate voted 17-4 to approve SB369, which amends Nevada’s law on pretrial release by requiring that a court only impose bail or a condition of release if its found to be the “least restrictive means necessary” to protect the safety of the community and ensure the person appears in court. It changes previous law requiring defendants show “good cause” for pretrial release that was struck down by the state Supreme Court in 2019.

Republican Senate Leader James Settelmeyer (R-Minden) said he opposed removing the “good cause” requirement, saying that he was concerned it could lead to more criminals on the street. Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro (D-Las Vegas) said it was needed to align the state with the court’s decision and still allowed courts to impose conditions of release on someone who might prove a danger to others.

“I think that this bill strikes a balance in protecting the community and providing some additional safeguards, while at the same time recognizing the Supreme Court's decision in (the 2019) case and aligning our statutes with their constitutional findings in that case,” Cannizzaro said.

HIV laws overhaul

In a unanimous vote, members of the state Senate approved Sen. Dallas Harris’ SB275 — a comprehensive bill aimed at updating the state’s laws on human immunodeficiency virus by treating HIV in the same way as other communicable diseases.

The bill repeals a state law making it a felony for someone who has tested positive for HIV to intentionally, knowingly or willfully engage in conduct that is intended or likely to transmit the disease — putting it in line with how the state treats other diseases such as chlamydia and SARS.

Banning the declawing of cats

A measure generally prohibiting the declawing of cats, except for medically necessary purposes, passed out of the Assembly on a 28-14 vote.

Sponsored by Assemblywoman Susie Martinez (D-Las Vegas), AB209 imposes civil penalties on any person who removes or disables the claws of a cat, as well as sets disciplinary actions that the state Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners can take against a veterinarian who conducts the procedure.

All Assembly Democrats, save Brittney Miller (D-Las Vegas), voted in favor of the measure, with all Republicans. save Melissa Hardy, Heidi Kasama and Jim Wheeler, voting against it.

Allowing college athletes to profit off their likeness

A measure clearing the way for collegiate athletes to profit off their image or likeness passed out of the Assembly on a 34-8 vote.

AB254, sponsored by Assembly Speaker Jason Frierson, would prohibit the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) from preventing students from using their likeness, name or image in sponsorships or for other professional services, with certain limits on what kinds of businesses that students can contract with. It also requires the Legislative Committee of Education to conduct an interim study on the issue.

Prohibiting ‘doxing’

Members of the Assembly voted unanimously to approve Rochelle Nguyen’s AB296, which creates the crime of ‘doxing’ — unauthorized sharing of personal identifying information, such as an address, with the intent to cause harm or mental anguish.

The bill as amended authorizes a person to bring a civil action against a person who “doxes” them, and allows a court to issue restraining orders against a person that disseminates that personal information.

Lawsuits over sexual exploitation

Senators voted 18-3 to pass SB203, a bill that removes the statute of limitations for victims of child sexual exploitation to bring lawsuits against the parties involved. Previously, such actions were limited by deadlines, including one provision requiring a lawsuit be initiated within 20 years of a victim turning 18. 

The bill specifies that people are liable for damages if they financially benefit from the exploitation, although a hotel or motel with more than 200 rooms is not considered to have benefited from the rental of a room used in the commission of exploitation.

The three Republicans who voted against the bill raised several concerns, including how accurately a victim would remember a very old crime and why the measure included a 200-room limit. Sponsor Marilyn Dondero Loop responded that there needed to be some sort of room limitation or there would be no bill.

Notaries charging more

AB245, a bill that would allow notaries public to charge more for document preparation services, passed in a 31-11 vote.

Assemblyman Edgar Flores (D-Las Vegas) said the bill was backed by small businesses that wanted the opportunity to make more money. It would double or triple the fees that notaries are allowed to charge for certain services, and create civil penalties for violators — a provision Flores said was meant to curb bad actors in the industry.

The industry can be open to malfeasance in part because of notaries misrepresenting themselves as authorized to process immigration documents because of the way the term “notarios” translates in Latin American countries.

Cage-free eggs

Members of the Assembly voted 27-15 to pass AB399, which requires eggs sold within the state to be housed in cage-free living arrangements by Jan. 1, 2024.

Sponsor Howard Watts (D-Las Vegas) argued during a hearing that demands for efficiency in egg production led to hens living in “pretty horrific conditions” with less square footage than a piece of letter paper. Egg industry officials who testified said consumer demand for cage-free eggs is quickly rising, and several of Nevada’s neighboring states are adopting cage-free requirements.

Assemblyman Glen Leavitt (R-Boulder City) was the lone Republican to support the measure.

Citations, rather than arrests, for minor crimes

Assembly members voted on party lines, with Republicans opposed, for AB440 — a bill that directs police to issue citations in lieu of arresting people over misdemeanors in more situations. The measure does make exceptions for when the matter is a “subsequent” offense, defined as something for which the person has been previously arrested, convicted or cited. 

Multi-parent adoption

A measure allowing multiple parents to adopt a child without removing a parent from a child’s birth certificate passed out of the Assembly on a 34-8 vote.

AB115, sponsored by Rochelle Nguyen (D-Las Vegas), would recognize the parental rights of stepparents and same-sex parents and would allow for children who are born to surrogate parents or who have divorced parents to have more than two names listed on a birth certificate.

Small business advocate

On a 31-11 vote, members of the Assembly advanced a bill that would create an Office of Small Business Advocacy under the purview of the state lieutenant governor.

The bill, AB184, was amended to put a 2023 expiration date on the office and prohibits the lieutenant governor from funding positions in the office from budgeted dollars from the state’s general fund.

MONDAY

Sealing eviction records during COVID

Assembly members cast a party-line 26-16 vote to approve AB141, a bill from Assemblyman Howard Watts (D-Las Vegas) that would require courts to automatically seal eviction case court records for any summary eviction conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The original version of the bill would have also required landlords to give certain long-term tenants additional advance notice before proceeding with a no-cause eviction, but those provisions were removed in an amendment.

Unemployment bill

Senators voted 12-9 to advance SB75, a measure that makes technical changes to the regular unemployment system, such as allowing more flexibility on when claimants are eligible for benefit extensions and assuring that layoffs during the height of the pandemic recession do not count against employers in determining their unemployment tax rate.

Republicans, who want more ambitious changes such as fast-tracking a major overhaul of computer infrastructure and the merging of the regular system with the Pandemic Unemployment Assistance program for gig workers and the self-employed, said the bill does not go far enough.

“It's the only bill that DETR brought, and yet it fails to address the bulk of the problems including the structural and technological deficits that have kept thousands of people from getting the benefits they paid for,” said Sen. Keith Pickard (R-Henderson). “I'm amazed that anyone thinks that this is enough.”

Pickard also spoke out against lawmakers’ decision to extend unemployment benefits to school support professionals who work from nine to eleven months a year. Those workers typically aren’t eligible for benefits because they have a reasonable expectation of their job returning after the summertime, although union representatives say a tough economic climate has hurt their summer job prospects.

But those workers will be eligible for unemployment this summer under emergency regulations adopted last week. Republicans say that even with federal funds footing 75 percent of the bill, it could cost districts millions of dollars.

“They were hired for nine months of work. This is a giveaway that I cannot support,” Pickard said.

Lowering barriers to contraception

Members of the Senate unanimously voted to approve SB190, sponsored by Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro (D-Las Vegas). The bill would allow women to receive birth control through a pharmacy without a doctor’s visit

Cannizzaro introduced similar legislation in 2019, but that bill never made it out of its final committee hearing. 

“Removing access barriers to birth control will lead to better health outcomes for Nevadans who need it,” Cannizzaro tweeted after the bill was voted out of the Senate. “I’m excited to move this bill on to the Assembly!”

If the bill passes, Nevada will become the 13th state to legalize pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraceptives.

Keeping wage history private

Senators vote 17-4 to pass SB293, which prohibits an employer from seeking out a job candidate’s wage or salary history, or basing pay on a previous salary.

Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro (D-Las Vegas) said the measure would help tackle the gender pay gap, ensuring that if a woman’s pay was lower than her male counterparts in her last job, it would not follow her to her next job and perpetuate a disparity.

She said the measure directs employers to base pay on a worker’s experience and qualifications instead of a previous pay scale.

Four Republican senators opposed the bill.

‘Pattern and practice’ investigations of police agencies

Members of the Assembly voted unanimously to approve AB58, a bill sponsored by the attorney general’s office that authorizes the agency to conduct so-called “pattern and practice” investigations into systemic abuse or discrimination committed by law enforcement. 

During a hearing on the bill last month, Attorney General Aaron Ford said the measure was necessary because the federal U.S. Department of Justice — which was given authority to conduct such investigations in 1994 — ceased conducting them in 2017 under former U.S. Attorney General Jeff Sessions. 

Though the policy may change, Ford said it is important for the state to have the ability to undertake similar investigations.

Jury trials for misdemeanor domestic violence cases

Members of the Assembly voted 32-10 to approve AB42, a bill seeking to implement a Nevada Supreme Court decision requiring jury trials in misdemeanor domestic violence cases that involve the defendant losing the right to have a firearm. 

The bill, which was sponsored by the City of Henderson, attempts to square a simmering implementation issue that arose for local governments after the Nevada Supreme Court’s 2019 decision requiring jury trials for misdemeanor domestic violence cases.

Six Republican Assembly members — Annie Black, Melissa Hardy, Heidi Kasama, Lisa Krasner, Tom Roberts and Jill Tolles —  joined Democrats in supporting the bill.

Mining oversight

Members of the Assembly voted along party lines (26-16) to approve AB148, a bill by Assemblywoman Sarah Peters (D-Reno) that would prohibit the issuance of a mining operation or exploration permit to any person leading a company that has defaulted on obligations related to mining reclamation.

An amendment to the bill refined the definition of a “principal officer” of a company to a “person who has a controlling interest” in a mining company that has defaulted on obligations, and allows that person to receive a permit once past debts are paid. The measure, if approved, would go into effect in 2022.

Hairstyle discrimination

In a 20-1 vote, the Senate passed SB327, which provides protections against discrimination based on hairstyles associated with particular races.

Sponsored by Sen. Dina Neal (D-North Las Vegas), the legislation extends statutory protection to hair texture and protective styles such as braids, locs, twists and knots in the workplace and public schools.

The bill arrives as part of a nationwide movement to end hair discrimination. Nevada is one of roughly thirty states considering adopting protections for hair styles, and at least 10 states, including Washington, California and Colorado, have already passed similar legislation.

“This is something that is new to some of the folks in this chamber, but very real to others who have spent years of their lives trying to make sure that their hair is appropriate, based upon what is often someone else's standards,” said bill co-sponsor Sen. Dallas Harris (D-Las Vegas).

Sen. Ira Hansen (R-Sparks) was the only senator to vote in opposition.

Paid leave for health reasons and getting vaccine

The Senate passed SB209 by a vote of 19-2 with Sen. Ben Kieckhefer (R-Reno) and Sen. Ira Hansen (R-Sparks) in opposition.

Introduced by Sen. Fabian Donate (D-Las Vegas), the bill would approve the use of state-mandated paid leave for any health reason, including receiving a COVID vaccine. It also requires the Legislative Committee on Health Care to conduct an interim study on the COVID public health crisis.

Kieckhefer said that though he supports paid leave for vaccines, the study did not seem necessary.

“I am … unabashedly pro vaccines,” Kieckhefer said. “However, I think the idea of charging the Legislative Committee on Health Care with the job of conducting an interim study on the state's COVID-19 response is a Herculean task that is most appropriate elsewhere.”

HOA debt collection

Members of the Senate voted 15-6 to pass SB186, a bill requiring collection agencies to file a report on collections related to homeowners’ associations (HOA).

The bill also prohibits collection agencies from collecting debts from a person who owes fees to an HOA if the collection agency is connected at all to that HOA, either through sharing the same owners or affiliates.

Sen. Keith Pickard (R-Henderson) spoke in opposition to the bill, citing increased burdens on HOAs. 

The bill initially required collection agencies to report on the race, ethnicity, gender identity and sexual orientation of people from whom they are collecting, but was replaced with a requirement for the homeowner’s ZIP code. Still, Pickard said that the bill’s history was problematic.

“If we wish to find true equality and treatment, it must begin with race neutral goals that put all people on an even playing field,” Pickard said. “Not simply changing the parameters of the prejudice that moves one ahead at the expense of another.”

Sen. Ben Kieckhefer (R-Reno) and Sen. Joe Hardy (R-Boulder City) joined Democrats in support of the legislation.

Hate crimes

Members of the Senate cast a party-line vote, 12-9, to pass SB166, a bill clarifying that a crime does not need to be committed by someone with different characteristics than the victim to be considered a hate crime.

Sponsored by Sen. Melanie Scheible (D-Las Vegas), the bill specifies that characteristics include, race, color, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation or gender identity. It also provides that a perpetrator may be punished with an additional penalty if he or she commits a crime based solely on the characteristic of the victim, even if the victim and perpetrator share that characteristic.

Though the measure passed along party-lines, it generated no floor remarks or debate.

Savings accounts for low-income Nevadans

Low-income people could access savings accounts and matching funds that could multiply their deposits up to five fold under SB188, a bill that senators passed unanimously which creates the “Individual Development Account Program.” People living in low-income housing projects, who have enrolled in Medicaid or who are in the foster care system are eligible.

The bill calls for the state treasurer to work with a fiduciary organization that would accept grants and donations, then use them to match funds deposited by account holders, with up to $3,000 per beneficiary per year. The state would also be required to provide financial literacy training to account holders.

“This legislation will aid systems in supporting individuals to develop pathways out of poverty,” wrote Tiffany Tyler-Garner, head of the Children’s Advocacy Alliance, in a letter of support. “Additionally, it establishes statewide infrastructure for fostering financial independence.”

Ratios of students to social workers

School districts in Clark and Washoe counties would have to create plans for achieving better ratios of students to mental health professionals under SB151, which passed the Senate in an 18-3 vote. 

Each year, districts must report to the governor, lawmakers and the Nevada Board of Education their ratio of students to “specialized instructional support personnel” (such as counselors, school psychologists and social workers). The bill also requires the districts to set targets for improvement and describe strategies for recruiting and retaining those staff members.

Sen. Ben Kieckhefer (R-Reno) voted against the bill, saying that the state’s current budget proposal will reduce the amount of funding available to social workers and lead to cuts in the positions even “as their contractual obligations continue to increase.”

“Hopefully, this measure will be able to be implemented with integrity that it needs to ensure that social workers are being funded at a level that is necessary,” he said.

Statewide human trafficking plan

Members of the Assembly voted unanimously to approve AB143, a bill by Assemblywoman Lisa Krasner (R-Reno) that would require creation of a statewide coalition and plan to deliver services to victims of human trafficking.

Krasner said previously that the bill is intended to help the state qualify for federal grants that require formation of a statewide plan for human trafficking victim services. The program would be placed under the Division of Child and Family Services in the state’s Department of Health and Human Services, and includes a requirements that the state publish an online directory of services for victims of human trafficking.

This story was updated at 1:57 p.m. on Wednesday April 21, 2021 to include a quote from Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui on an amendment in the "ghost guns" bill.

Bill giving tenants more notice before increased rent openly embraced; landlord registry receives less enthusiasm

One of the 2021 legislative session's hot button issues has been the effort to expand tenants' rights and protections amid pushback from homebuilders and landlords who say some proposed changes could lead to increased home construction prices. 

But on Monday, both sides said they support proposed legislation that would give renters more of a heads up on rent increases, even as there was a less warm reception for a bill that would create a statewide landlord database and registry.

AB308, sponsored by Speaker Jason Frierson (D-Las Vegas) and presented during an Assembly Commerce and Labor Committee hearing, would increase the timeline for notification of rent increases from 45 to 60 days in advance for rentals that are longer than a month and increase it from 15 to 30 days for a tenancy that is less than a month, such as weekly rentals. Frierson's bill also proposes that a landlord may not charge a late fee as long as the rent is paid within three calendar days of the due date.

"Housing continues to be a large percentage of a family's monthly expenses," Frierson said. "As Nevada continues to see slower economic recovery, as compared to other states across the country, I believe it's critical that we find ways to help tenants adequately prepare for the unexpected while not placing excessive burdens on landlords."

Teresa McKee, CEO of Nevada REALTORS, along with other landlords and property managers, lauded AB308 as a "balanced and transparent approach to landlord-tenant issues." McKee said most property managers and landlords are transparent with tenants, but the bill is aimed at landlords who are not.

"We know there are some landlords who are not as transparent and may not have that kind of relationship with their tenants," McKee said. "Both of the time periods proposed would now require such transparency from all landlords, in a way that is fair and equitable."

Bailey Bortolin, a representative of the Nevada Coalition of Legal Service Providers, said the bill would help tenants dependent on Social Security Income that typically comes on the third of the month.

"Many [Social Security recipients] have been paying a late fee every month for over a year now, because they don't have an opportunity to catch up," Bortolin said. "So, this will be much needed reprieve for those members of our community."

Another bill heard Monday aimed at increasing transparency around the rental market was met with less enthusiasm.

AB332, sponsored by Assemblywoman Sarah Peters (D-Reno), would require the Housing Division of the Department of Business and Industry to establish a registry of landlords.

The registry would contain:

  • A landlord's first and last name, state and county of residence
  • The number of rental units the landlord owns in Nevada, along with the addresses for each of those units
  • The amount and frequency of rent charged for each unit 
  • Property manager information, when applicable.

The measure is designed to help policymakers understand the scope and trends within Nevada's rental market through an analysis of data collected over the next two years, Peters said.

"What I'm really looking at are market drivers … and how are we establishing policies and practices across the board at the state and the local levels to help both tenants and landlords manage in that marketplace," she said.

Assemblywoman Heidi Kasama (R-Las Vegas), former president of the Nevada REALTORS Association, said she worried that the data collected would place an undue burden on landlords, infringe on property rights and possibly lead to overregulation.

"What is the goal of all the data ?" Kasama said. "I do think it's getting into the business practice of the owners."

Kasama added that many renters and homeowners could already find existing data using Zillow or the tax assessor's office.

Peters pushed back against the idea, noting that housing data is not always consistent and AB332 would better inform lawmakers. There are also no punitive measures for those who do not comply with the law, Peters said.

"There's no decision being made based on this data, it is just really to inform us on what the market looks like and what's driving it," Peters said.

An amendment proposed by Peters specifies that the bill would only apply to landlords who use a property manager or own three or more units. It also stipulates that associations would report information on behalf of members, and landlords not part of an association would submit their own reports.

Peters said that the legislation excludes landlords with fewer than three properties because those smaller landlords are not huge rental market drivers. The two-year program would help lawmakers understand current trends, but not commit the state to a longer time frame unless future lawmakers wanted to expand the scope of the project, she added.

Assemblywoman Melissa Hardy (R-Henderson) raised concerns about privacy related to landlords' information. Still, Peters said that individual-level data would not be available to the general public, and analysts would aggregate the data before releasing it to an outside party.

As drafted, the Nevada Housing Division estimated that AB332 would cost the state around $400,000 over the next two fiscal years. The funding would provide the division with enhanced rental housing database software and salary for a management analyst to oversee the program.

Benjamin Challinor, a lobbyist with the statewide nonprofit Faith in Action Nevada, praised AB332 as a bill that would build transparency and accountability that goes beyond what sites such as Zillow have to offer.

"This bill will make sure that we're able to register landlords, identify bad actors, and actually go back and use that data in support of legislation in the future," Challinor said. "Other states have passed landlord registries, other municipalities have passed them, and it's done a great job out there." 

Neither AB332 nor AB302 drew any public comments in opposition, and the Nevada State Apartment Association testified in neutral.

"Today's amendment is an excellent first step. We do have some concerns that rental statistics may quickly become stale," said Mackenzie Warren, a lobbyist representing the association. "We really appreciate this bill's push to make Nevada more transparent, which we think is critical in the battle to increase accessibility and affordability."

Election Preview: State Senate races will determine Democrats’ chances at reaching a super-majority

All it takes is one.

After the 2018 election, Democrats controlled 13 of 21 seats in the state Senate — enough for a clear majority, but one short of a supermajority that could give the party the power to raise taxes and take other major procedural action without a Republican in support. The arrangement was brought into laser-sharp focus through Democrats’ multiple failed attempts to raise mining taxes during the summer special session because they failed to notch a Republican vote.

Now, with less than a month before Election Day, state Senate Democrats are aiming to flip two Republican-held districts while defending two suburban Las Vegas districts they won narrowly in the 2016 election.

It’s unlikely Republicans will gain a majority in the Senate without a major wave that gives them victory over essentially all seats in play and a fifth seat that’s considered generally out of reach. Democrats enjoy a 13-8 advantage in the Senate, and Republicans are aiming to both pick up seats and defend potentially vulnerable districts to ensure that Democrats don’t obtain a supermajority.

As members of the 21-seat state Senate serve four-year terms, only 11 districts are up for re-election in 2020 — and only four are considered to be up for grabs, given relative closeness in voter registration totals. 

Democrats are playing defense in two suburban Las Vegas Senate districts, with Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro running against Republican attorney April Becker in District 6, and political newcomer Kristee Watson attempting to keep control of Senate District 5 in a race against Republican charter school leader Carrie Buck (Democratic former Sen. Joyce Woodhouse is termed out of office).

On the flip side, Republicans are fending off challenges to well-funded incumbents Heidi Gansert in Reno (running against Wendy Jauregui-Jackins) and Scott Hammond (running against Liz Becker) in northwest Las Vegas.

Other Senate candidates are facing a much easier walk to re-election — incumbent Democrats Chris Brooks and Pat Spearman didn’t attract a single challenger, while incumbent Republican Sen. Pete Goicoechea and Democratic candidate Dina Neal are both running in districts with overwhelmingly favorable voter registration advantages. Former Democratic state party head Roberta Lange overcame robust challenges from sitting lawmakers in the primary election for termed-out Sen. David Parks’ seat, but she does not have a general election opponent.

Some Republican consultants have identified Senate District 11 — where appointed Sen. Dallas Harris is running for the first time against Republican Joshua Dowden — as a potential pickup opportunity in a wave election. However, registered Democrats currently outnumber registered Republicans by a nearly 18-percentage-point margin in the district, making it unlikely that control of the district will flip.

But Republican candidates are for the most part entering the final period before the election with a cash advantage. All four Republicans in swing districts — Gansert, Hammond, Becker and Buck — outraised their opponents over the most recent fundraising quarter, which ran from July to the end of September.

“We've really been focused not only on protecting our incumbents, Sen. Gansert and Sen. Hammond, but really making sure that Carrie Buck and April Becker had a strong team behind them and the resources that needed to compete knowing how close these races have been historically,” said Greg Bailor, director of the Senate Republican Caucus.

The most recent numbers also mean that, save for Cannizzaro, Republicans have cumulatively outraised Democratic candidates since the start of 2019 in three of the four competitive districts. They’re also receiving a boost from several outside groups, including a PAC created by the Las Vegas Police Protective Association that’s raised half a million dollars, and former Lt. Gov. Mark Hutchison-led PAC (Stronger Nevada PAC) that has raised more than $1.8 million this year and placed substantial television and digital ads attacking Democratic candidates.

But fundraising totals and voter registration data are just some of the factors that determine electoral success, not infallible predictors.

Nevada State Senate Democrats Executive Director Cheryl Bruce said early returns from the first week of mail voting had been a positive indicator, but that candidates and the party would continue pushing hard through the state’s early vote period and Election Day. 

“In races like these that we're playing in, it is always going to be tight, it's always going to be close,” she said. “And so we cannot take anything for granted, and we're not going to. We have reasons to be optimistic, but we're not going to let our foot off the gas.”

While some campaigns got a slower start to door-knocking and canvassing because of concerns over the COVID-19 pandemic, Bruce said that the party recently started using a “hybrid” canvassing system, where volunteers who are comfortable drop campaign literature at doors or have conversations with voters at a six-foot, socially distanced space.

And while the presidential race has sucked up much of the political oxygen, the lack of a statewide race on the ballot (such as governor or U.S. Senate) means that legislative candidates in two races — Cannizzaro and Becker, and Gansert and Jauregui-Jackins — have purchased television advertisements.

No legislative candidates bought television ad time in 2018, and only one — former Sen. Joyce Woodhouse — did so in 2016. Though there are some drawbacks — television ads can’t be geolocated to an individual district and thus likely reach a large number of voters who can’t vote for the candidate — Bruce said that the lack of other major races or a big-money ballot question gave candidates “a little bit more of an opening, both in terms of maximizing our dollars and also cutting through some noise on TV.”

Republicans hope to pin their opponents to Democratic Gov. Steve Sisolak, whose approval ratings have dropped by double digits as economic troubles have carried on, unemployment remains sky high and critics have scrutinized his response to the pandemic. If they block Democrats from holding a two-thirds majority, Republicans can continue to be a relevant part of the policy conversation.

“We're also 200 days plus now into the COVID shutdown and the economic shutdown and seeing the governor continue to struggle to communicate,” Bailor said. “If there is a path to get the Senate back in Republican control, that puts at least a check back on the system of state government. And that is an opportunity to maybe have a more bipartisan conversation when we go to Carson City in 2021.”

Bruce said that even with the governor’s lower approval ratings, Democratic candidates were not shying away from Sisolak’s support or endorsement. She said if anything, voters were more apt to make decisions on down-ballot races based on their reaction to President Trump.

“People are really responding well to the steps and the actions that he's taken to help us weather the storm of the pandemic, both economically and health and safety-wise,” she said. “There is definitely a very strong sense of anger towards the Trump administration right now, and really DC politics in general, that I think is going to probably play a factor in these races.”

As for Republicans? 

“Nobody's shying away from the party ticket,” Bailor said. “But with our messaging, we're not talking about national issues. We're talking about local issues at the state level.” 

Below, The Nevada Independent explores those four Senate races this year. Click here to read more about the Assembly races and check out our election page for more information overall on the 2020 election.

Senate District 5 

Republican former charter school principal Carrie Buck is trying for the third time to win a seat in the swingy Henderson-area district held by termed-out Democrat Joyce Woodhouse. Buck lost to Woodhouse by less than one percentage point in 2016 and proffered herself as a potential replacement in an unsuccessful attempt to recall Woodhouse in 2017.

Currently the head of Pinecrest Foundation, which supports the now eight-school Pinecrest Academy charter school network, Buck raised $211,066 in the latest quarter and spent $60,562, leaving her with $246,023 heading into the final month of her campaign. Her fundraising eclipses that of Democrat Kristee Watson, who reported raising $115,055 and spending $161,266, leaving her with $123,686 to spend in the home stretch.

Buck said her priority bills would require students to read at grade level by fifth grade, and she wants to develop the workforce by identifying available jobs and working backwards to what can prepare middle and high schoolers for those openings. 

Watson is the program facilitator for literacy nonprofit Spread the Word Nevada. She ran for an Assembly seat in 2018, but lost to Republican Melissa Hardy by about nine percentage points.

Libertarian and retired electrical engineer Tim Hagan is also competing in the race and reported $6,000 in contributions last quarter, all from an in-kind donation for video production. All three candidates ran unopposed in their June primaries. 

Democrats hold a roughly 6 percent voter registration advantage in the district over Republicans as of the most recent registration data available, with 37.7 percent registered as Democrats, 31.8 percent registered Republicans and 24 percent nonpartisan. Senate District 5 includes portions of Henderson and southeastern Las Vegas. 

At the same time in 2016, Democrats represented about 38.9 percent of registered voters compared to roughly 34 percent of Republicans, or about a 5 point difference in voter registration advantage (with about 20.1 percent of voters registered as nonpartisan). 

Senate District 6 - Cannizzaro/Becker

Prosecutor and Democratic Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro is in a fierce contest to keep her swingy Summerlin-area seat this cycle. She faces Republican real estate attorney April Becker in a race that is a referendum on one of the most powerful decision makers in the Legislature and therefore the direction of the body as a whole, including bills passed on narrow margins and late-night hearings on major policy.

“There's plenty to campaign on right now, just over the behavior of the Senate majority, the politics that were played,” Bailor said. “It's unnecessary, especially when we are dealing with such a large economic burden and such a health care crisis.”

Cannizzaro raised $193,131 in the latest quarter and spent $302,972, with a massive war chest of $581,936 cash on hand heading into the final month of the campaign. Becker topped her fundraising haul in the latest quarter, bringing in $248,668, but spent $217,527 and has less cash on hand — $181,011 — heading into the last month of the campaign.

Cannizzaro’s television campaign focuses largely on health care — touting votes for protecting people with pre-existing conditions and ending surprise hospital billing — while accusing Becker of being supported by politicians who support repealing the Affordable Care Act.

Bruce said that Cannizzaro’s campaign was focused largely on the twin points of health care and education, while also addressing the state’s pandemic response and recovery. She said many of the complaints about the rushed legislative process during the special sessions came from lobbyists or other legislative watchers and not from normal citizens.

“It's kind of a disconnect between what the general lobby corp and Carson City insiders would say, versus what every day voter and citizen in Nevada would say about that,” she said.

A centerpiece of Becker’s campaign has been riding around her district in a bright blue ice cream truck meeting voters. Her ads accuse Cannizzaro of voting to raise her own pay (through support of annual legislative sessions) and promises that she’ll donate her legislative salary to teachers.

Becker also criticized moves to scale back Opportunity Scholarships, which give businesses tax credits for donations to scholarships that families can use to attend private schools, and argues that “we need to stiffen penalties on dangerous felons.”

Democrats hold about an 8 point voter registration advantage in this district over Republicans, with the most recent data showing the district’s more than 84,000 voters to have 39.7 percent registered Democrats, 31.8 percent registered Republicans, and 22.4 percent registered nonpartisan.

That’s a slightly smaller percentage advantage than the 8.5 percent registration advantage Democrats enjoyed in 2016, which saw registration made up of 40.9 percent registered Democrats, 32.4 percent registered Republicans and 19.2 percent registered non-partisan. 

In 2016, Cannizzaro narrowly defeated former Republican Assemblywoman Victoria Seaman by slightly more than 1,000 votes out of more than 56,000 cast.

Democrats upped their total registered voter advantage by about 2,000 over the four-year period (4,691 advantage in 2016 and 6,684 in 2020), though the total number of registered voters in the district also jumped by more than 14,000 over the same four-year period.

Senate District 15 

Republican Sen. Heidi Gansert is seeking re-election to her Reno-area district. She raised $201,665 in the last quarter and spent $191,223, leaving her with $282,068 on the eve of the election.

Gansert is the executive director of external relations at the University of Nevada, Reno, and served as chief of staff to former Gov. Brian Sandoval. 

“She grew up in that community, she's served multiple sessions in assembly, and now the Senate,” Bailor said. “People know Heidi. And that's also something that's gonna help — she's (part of the) fabric of that community.”

Bruce said there was a “big difference” in the dynamics of Gansert’s 2020 race after two terms in the Legislature,  as opposed to her initial 2016 state Senate bid, where she defeated attorney Devon Reese by an 11-point margin.

“She can't necessarily paint herself as this moderate this time when she has a voting record to answer for,” she said.

Democrats have endorsed and rallied around Wendy Jauregui-Jackins, a county appraiser and the sister of Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui. Jauregui-Jackins reported raising more than $126,000 over the last three months, spending just under $100,000 and keeping roughly $133,000 in cash on hand. 

Similar to Cannizzaro, Jauregui-Jackins’s television ad focuses largely on health care issues and claims Gansert took campaign dollars from drug and insurance companies and voted against a resolution urging Congress to not repeal the Affordable Care Act.

Gansert has responded directly to that ad, releasing a response touting her votes for drug transparency legislation, birth control access legislation and a vote in favor of the Equal Rights Amendment.

One possible sign of concern for Gansert comes in voter registration trends; Democrats now enjoy a narrow 841-person voter registration lead over Republicans in the district, a flip from the same point in 2016 when Republicans held a 1,641-person advantage in registered voters.

Senate District 18 

Republican incumbent Scott Hammond is seeking to maintain a seat he’s held since 2012 representing a Republican-leaning, northwestern portion of Las Vegas. He raised $131,762 and spent $65,050 last quarter, holding $90,095 heading into the final leg of the race.

A former teacher who now works as Director of Community Outreach for the Nevada Contractors Association, Hammond’s campaign has involved convening weekly telephone town halls on topics relating to the pandemic.

He will compete against Democratic challenger Liz Becker in November. She is a former teacher and environmental scientist who previously worked with Southern Nevada Water Authority who lists environmental issues and gun violence prevention among her top campaign priorities.  

Becker’s funding falls far short of Hammond’s, though — she raised $24,161, or less than a fifth of what Hammond did in the most recent quarter.

Becker spent $16,493 and had $41,650 cash on hand with a month left to go in the race.

Democrats account for 33.7 percent of active registered voters in the district, while Republicans have 37.5 percent.

Bill expanding mail-in voting during times of emergencies passes Assembly on party lines

Members of the Assembly voted along party lines on Friday to advance a bill that would enshrine a vast expansion of mail-in voting during emergencies such as the ongoing pandemic.

The 29-12 vote, which came just a few hours after the 100-page AB4 was brought to light, underscored the differences between Republican Secretary of State Barbara Cegavske and the largely Democratic Assembly. Democrats say the pandemic demands the continuation of broad accommodations for distance voting; Cegavske has argued that the existing laws designed in more normal times suffice.

“No person should ever have to choose between their health and safety and their participation in democracy,” said Democratic Assemblywoman Shannon Bilbray-Axelrod. “I am proud to support and vote for AB4, as it will go a long way to ensure that citizens of Nevada can participate in a safe manner.”

The bill requires election officials to supply a mail-in ballot to all active, registered voters in the state. The ballots must be mailed 20 days before the election to those who reside in the state and 40 days before the election to those who live outside the state. It also allocates $3 million in state funds for the general election, with instructions on further disbursements of potential future funds.

The bill in its original form would require Clark County to provide at least 35 polling places for early voting, with at least 15 in Washoe County and at least one permanent location in every other county. On Election Day, Clark County must have at least 100 polling places, Washoe County must have 25 and every other county must have at least one polling place open.

That came after long lines at the three in-person voting sites in Clark County during the primary. The last voter did not cast a ballot until nearly 3 a.m.

Cegavske has argued that the move to a mostly mail primary election in June was a special circumstance and that Nevadans should adjust to a new normal. She said people who fear for their health in going to vote in person can request an absentee ballot and that her office is making that easier by implementing an online absentee ballot request process.

Republicans took issue with provisions that allow people to turn in ballots for non-family members, and said the special session was not the time to make such a dramatic change. 

“I cannot even begin to try and predict what effect this will have on our state, and on our election process,” said Republican Assemblywoman Melissa Hardy. “This bill swings the pendulum to an extreme without having time to research its unintended consequences.”

Cost has been one reason Cegavske cited for not moving entirely to mail ballots, especially because Nevada has used almost all of its federal CARES Act allotment designated for elections on the primary. Each ballot packet costs a little more than a dollar, meaning it would cost about $2 million to send them to all of the estimated 1.7 million Nevadans who will vote in November.

Then, the cost of government-paid postage for ballots that are returned is estimated to cost about $700,000 in the general election based on turnout projections, according to Wayne Thorley, deputy secretary of state for elections. Tabulation equipment cost about $550,000, and another $750,000 was spent on voter education during the primary, he said.

Supporters of the bill pointed out that Nevada had high turnout in its first venture to a mostly mail model. With about 30 percent turnout among active registered voters, it was the highest rate for a primary since 1996.

Cegavske also acknowledged there were no instances of voter fraud during the primary that were reported to her office — a point that Democrats took up in their arguments for continuing largely mail elections.

“Our chief elections officer herself stated that this year we had record turnout statewide and not a single case of fraud,” said Democratic Assemblywoman Sandra Jauregui. “For the continued safety of our state, and to do our part to keep our fellow Nevadans safe, I urge my colleagues to vote yes.” 

The bill now heads to the Senate for deliberations.

What to watch in the 2020 primary election: Assembly and state Senate races

The inside of the Nevada Legislature during State of the State

When the dust settles on the June 9 primary election, Nevadans will have a good sense of who’s going to win about half of the seats up for grabs in the statehouse.

Party control of the Legislature is always a major objective for lawmakers in both parties, and the 2021 session will give lawmakers and Gov. Steve Sisolak the once-in-a-decade chance to redraw district boundaries during the redistricting process. 

It’s a process that could help lock in party advantages for congressional representatives, legislators and other elected officials for the next ten years (although a group is attempting to qualify a constitutional amendment creating an independent redistricting commission). Democrats control more than two-thirds of Assembly seats and are one seat shy of a supermajority in the state Senate. 

But candidates facing a massive variable — a global pandemic that has canceled the traditional trappings of a campaign, diverted attention from elections and spurred a shift to a virtually all-mail voting system with unpredictable turnout patterns.

“Under normal circumstances, a good pair of running shoes and the money to print up campaign literature could potentially be enough for a candidate to win a race simply by outworking their opponent,” said Eric Roberts of the Assembly Republican Caucus. “The old saying goes, ‘If you knock, you win.’ In 2020, that is all out the window.”

Largely unable to talk to voters at the door during the crucial weeks leading up to voting season, candidates can communicate through mail pieces — if they can drum up the money to pay for it. Businesses such as casinos that typically make sizable donations in state-level politics have seen their revenue flatline, and the effect ripples to candidates.

There are phone calls, political text messages and email missives. But what some observers think could make a difference is how well candidates leverage social media and digital advertising. 

A new challenge is the sudden shift to voting by mail. Up to this point, voting in person has been the method of choice for Nevadans, with the majority of those voters opting for a two-week early vote window.

This time, voters are receiving ballots in the mail more than a month before Election Day, elongating the voting period. With weeks left to go, tens of thousands of Clark County voters have already turned in their ballots, for example.

With ballots arriving in all active voters’ mailboxes — and in Clark County, even those deemed inactive — more people may be inclined to participate in what is usually a sleepy contest. Nevada and national Democrats filed but later dropped a lawsuit against state election officials after they agreed to send ballots to “inactive” voters, who are legally able to cast a ballot but have not responded to change of address forms sent out by county election officials.

“Truly the unknown is this vote by mail universe and who’s really going to take advantage of it, who does it leave out, how do you communicate to a universe that is 10 times bigger than what you thought you were going to have to communicate with,” said Megan Jones, a political consultant with close ties to Assembly Democrats. 

Of the 42 seats in the state Assembly, almost a quarter will be decided in the primary election. Four races will actually be decided in the primary — including three incumbent Republicans fending off challengers — because no other candidates filed to run in those districts. Another five races will effectively be decided in the primary, given vast disparity in voter registration totals making it all but impossible for the opposing party to gain a foothold. 

An additional seven Assembly members did not draw a re-election challenge and will win their seats automatically. These include Democrats Daniele Monroe Moreno, Selena Torres and Sarah Peters, and Republicans Tom Roberts, Melissa Hardy, Jill Tolles and John Ellison.

Of the 10 races in the state Senate, only one — the Democratic primary in Senate District 7 — will be determined in the primary election as no candidates from other parties filed to run for the seat. Two Senate members — Democrats Chris Brooks and Patricia Spearman — did not draw challengers and will automatically win their seats as well, while another three candidates have effectively won because of the voter registration advantages their party has in their district.

To help make sense of where the most intriguing races of this election will be, The Nevada Independent has compiled this list of races we’re keeping a close eye on, both for the storylines in the individual contests and how the outcomes could shift the balance of power heading into the critical 2021 legislative session. Additional information on these races and more can be found on The Nevada Independent’s Election 2020 page.

Senate District 7

This race is at the top of our watch list not only because it will be decided in the primary — all Democrats and no Republicans filed to run for the open seat — but because it pits two Assembly members against a former head of the state Democratic Party who has the support of the sitting Senate Democrats.

Assemblywoman Ellen Spiegel has a wide lead in the money race for the seat, which is held by termed-out Democratic Sen. David Parks. Stakes are high for the two Assembly members in the race, who are giving up their current seats to bid for the Senate seat.

Spiegel raised nearly $32,000 in the first quarter, twice that of former three-term Nevada State Democratic Party Chairwoman Roberta Lange, a Senate caucus-endorsed candidate perhaps best known for presiding over Democrats’ divisive 2016 presidential nominating process. Spiegel spent even more — $36,000 in the last quarter — and has a massive war chest of $208,000 on hand.

Spiegel, who describes herself as an “e-commerce pioneer” and now owns a consulting firm with her husband, chaired the Assembly Commerce and Labor Committee last session. She has endorsements from the Vegas and Henderson chambers of commerce. 

Lange, a retired teacher and union negotiator and now executive at a company that runs neighborhood gaming bars, has backing from the Senate Democratic Caucus, the Nevada State AFL-CIO, the Nevada State Education Association and the Culinary Union.

Trailing in the money game is Democratic Assemblyman Richard Carrillo, who only raised about $4,500 in the latest quarter. He’s spent nearly $16,000 in that timeframe and has about $26,000 in the bank.

Carrillo, a contractor who owns an air conditioning business, did not chair an Assembly committee last session and shares the AFL-CIO endorsement with Lange.

The district includes portions of the eastern Las Vegas Valley and Henderson. It has almost twice as many registered Democrats as Republicans.

Assembly District 2

Republicans are looking to keep control of this Summerlin Assembly seat this election after Assemblyman John Hambrick, who has represented the district since 2008, was termed out of office. Hambrick, 74, missed most of the 2019 legislative session because of health-related issues with both himself and his wife, who passed away in July.

The Assembly Republican Caucus has endorsed Heidi Kasama, managing broker of Berkshire Hathaway HomeServices-Nevada Properties, as Hambrick’s successor, as has Hambrick himself. Kasama has lived in Las Vegas since 2002 after starting her career as a certified public accountant and real estate agent in Washington. So far, Kasama has raised about $124,000 and spent about $19,000.

But Kasama faces four other Republicans in the primary: Erik Sexton, Jim Small, Taylor McArthur and Christian Morehead. Of those, Sexton, who works in commercial real estate, has raised the most, about $69,000 over the course of the cycle. Sexton has been endorsed by Las Vegas City Councilwoman Michele Fiore and former North Las Vegas Mayor Mike Montandon.

Jim Small, a retired member of the U.S. Senior Executive Service, has raised about $56,000 over the course of the cycle. Small has been endorsed by former congressional candidate and businessman Danny Tarkanian and conservative commentator Wayne Allyn Root, among others.

The other two Republican candidates in the race — McArthur and Morehead — have raised no money.

The Alliance for Property Protection Rights PAC, which is funded by the National Association of REALTORS Fund, has also inserted itself into this primary, sending negative mailers highlighting Sexton’s DUI arrest last year and accusing Small of having a “hidden past” as a “liberal Democrat,” while in other mail pieces boosting Kasama’s “strength,” “courage,” and “optimism.”

Meanwhile, both Sexton and Small have been punching back at Kasama for her ties to the REALTORS in other mail pieces. 

In one, Small argues that Kasama financially supports Democrats because the Nevada Association of REALTORS donated tens of thousands of dollars to Democratic candidates in 2018, the year she was president of the association. In another, Sexton criticizes the National Association of REALTORS’ budget, which was created when Kasama served on the association’s finance committee. 

Whoever wins the Republican primary will have a good shot at winning this lean Republican seat, where 37 percent of voters are Republican and 34.7 percent are Democratic. The Assembly Democratic Caucus has not endorsed in the primary, though journeywoman electrician Jennie Sherwood was backed by the caucus in the general election last year and is running again this cycle. Three other Democrats are also running for the seat: law school student and former cancer biology professor Radhika Kunnel, Eva Littman and Joe Valdes.

Of the four candidates, Kunnel has raised the most, about $27,000 between this year and last year, while Littman has loaned herself $25,000, Sherwood has loaned herself $5,000 and Valdes has raised $100.

A tenth candidate in the race, Garrett LeDuff, is running with no political party and has raised no money so far in his race.

Assembly District 4

The Nevada Assembly Republican caucus is looking to win back this swing seat lost to Democrats last election cycle by backing a political newcomer, Donnie Gibson, who will first have to defeat a primary challenge from former office-holder Richard McArthur.

Officially backed by the Assembly Republican caucus, Gibson is the owner of both a construction and equipment rental company, and sits on the board of several industry groups, including the Nevada Contractors Association and Hope for Prisoners. During the first quarterly fundraising period, he reported raising just over $51,000 and has nearly $86,000 in cash on hand.

But Gibson faces a tough challenger in former Assemblyman McArthur, who has served three non-consecutive terms in the Assembly; two terms between 2008 to 2012, and then one term between 2016 and 2018. He raised just $520 during the first fundraising period, but has more than $28,000 in available campaign funds. McArthur previously served with the U.S. Air Force and was a special agent for the FBI for 25 years.

Democratic incumbent Connie Munk did not draw a primary challenger, and reported raising more than $52,000 during the first fundraising period. Munk flipped the seat to Democrats in 2018, defeating McArthur by a 120-vote margin out of nearly 30,000 votes cast. 

Assembly District 7

Democrat Cameron “CH” Miller, who most recently served as Nevada political director for Beto O’Rourke and Amy Klobuchar’s presidential campaigns and has had a 20 year career in the entertainment industry, is running with the backing of the Assembly Democratic Caucus for this North Las Vegas Assembly district. The seat is held by Assemblywoman Dina Neal, who is running for state Senate.

While Miller has been endorsed by most of the Democratic-aligned organizations — including SEIU Local 1107, the Nevada State Education Association, Planned Parenthood Votes Nevada, the Culinary Union, NARAL Pro-Choice Nevada and the Nevada Conservation League — his one primary opponent, John Stephens III, has been endorsed by the Nevada State AFL-CIO.

Stephens is a former civilian employee of the Las Vegas Metro Police Department, former steward for the Teamsters Local 14 and a self-described political scientist, writer, exhibitor and Las Vegas library employee.

Miller has raised about $21,000 so far in his campaign, while Stephens has not reported raising any money.

Whoever wins the Democratic primary is likely to go on to win the general election against the one Republican candidate in the race, former Virginia Beach police officer Tony Palmer, as the district leans heavily Democratic with 54.3 percent registered Democrats, 22.7 percent nonpartisans and only 18 percent Republicans. Palmer has raised about $2,000, mostly from himself, in his bid.

Assembly District 16

Four Democratic candidates are running in this open seat after Assemblywoman Heidi Swank, who has represented the district since 2012, opted not to run for re-election. 

The Assembly Democratic Caucus has not endorsed any candidate in the race. Cecelia González and Russell Davis have so far split the major endorsements from Democratic-aligned groups. Both candidates were endorsed by the Nevada State AFL-CIO, while González was also endorsed by the Nevada State Education Association, the Culinary Union and the Nevada Conservation League, and Davis was endorsed by SEIU Local 1107. 

González, a community activist who plans to begin a doctoral program in multicultural education at UNLV in the fall, has raised a little more than $5,000 in her campaign, while Davis, a two-decade Clark County employee and SEIU member, hasn’t reported raising any money.

A third candidate in the race, online finance professor Geoffrey VanderPal, has loaned himself a little less than $4,000 in the race, while Joe Sacco, a union trade show and conventions worker with IATSE Local 720 and a REALTOR, has raised about $500.

Whoever wins the Democratic primary is likely to win the general election against the one Republican in the race, Reyna “Alex” Sajdak, as Democrats have an overwhelming voter registration advantage in the district, representing 47.1 percent of all voters. Nonpartisans make up another 27.3 percent, while Republicans represent only about 18.2 percent.

Sajdak has loaned herself only $260 in the race and received no other contributions.

Assembly District 18

Assemblyman Richard Carrillo has opted not to run for re-election to this East Las Vegas Assembly seat, which he has represented since 2010. He is running for state Senate.

Venicia Considine, an attorney with Legal Aid Center of Southern Nevada, is running with the backing of the Assembly Democratic Caucus for the seat and has been endorsed by SEIU Local 1107, Nevada State Education Association, Planned Parenthood Votes Nevada, the Culinary Union and the Nevada Conservation League.

However, she faces three other Democrats in the primary, including Char Frost, a former campaign manager and legislative staffer for Carrillo; Lisa Ortega, a master arborist and owner of Great Basin Sage Consulting; and Clarence Dortch, a teacher in the Clark County School District.

Considine has raised nearly $24,000 in her bid so far, while Ortega has raised a little less than $17,000 and Frost has raised about $8,000. Dortch has not yet reported raising any money.

Whoever wins the Democratic primary will go on to face Republican Heather Florian in the general election, though they are likely to win as Democrats hold a 24-point voter registration advantage over Republicans in the district. Florian has not yet reported raising any money in the race.

Assembly District 19

Assemblyman Chris Edwards is running for a fourth term in this rural Clark County Assembly district, but he faces a challenge from Mesquite City Councilwoman Annie Black, who is running to the right of the already conservative Edwards. Black most recently ran for Nevada Republican Party chair, losing to incumbent Michael McDonald.

So far, Edwards has raised about $17,000 in his re-election bid, to Black’s $2,600, which includes a $1,000 contribution from Las Vegas City Councilwoman Victoria Seaman and a $500 contribution from former Controller Ron Knecht.

Whoever wins this primary will go on to win the general election in November, as there are no Democrats or third-party candidates in the race.

Assembly District 21

Assemblyman Ozzie Fumo, who has represented this seat since 2016, is not seeking re-election this year and is running for the Nevada Supreme Court. The Assembly Democratic Caucus has endorsed attorney Elaine Marzola to replace him.

Marzola has received most of the Democratic-aligned endorsements in the primary, including from the Nevada State AFL-CIO, Planned Parenthood Votes Nevada, the Culinary Union and the Nevada Conservation League, while her one Democratic opponent in the primary, David Bagley, has the backing of the Nevada State Education Association. 

Bagley is the director of operations for the stem cell diagnostics company Pluripotent Diagnostics and was also Marianne Williamson’s Nevada state director for her presidential campaign last year.

Marzola has raised about $44,000 in her race so far, while Bagley has raised $20,000 in in-kind contributions from himself.

The winner of the Democratic primary will go on to face Republican Cherlyn Arrington in the general election. Arrington ran for the seat in 2018, losing to Fumo by 12.6 percentage points. Democrats have an 8 percentage point voter registration advantage in the district over Republicans. Arrington has raised a little less than $15,000 so far, including a $4,000 contribution from herself.

Assembly District 31

Former Republican Assemblywoman Jill Dickman hopes to reclaim a seat she held for one term and lost by fewer than 50 votes in 2016. But the manufacturing business owner is in a three-way primary, most notably with Washoe County Republican Party treasurer Sandra Linares. 

The Washoe County seat is held by Skip Daly, a four-term Assembly member who works as the business manager for Laborers Local 169 and has several notable endorsements from organized labor groups, including the Nevada State AFL-CIO and the Culinary Union.

Republicans have a registration advantage of more than four percentage points, but nonpartisans also make up about 21 percent of the swingy district.

Dickman raised just $116 in the first quarter of the year but has more than $99,000 cash on hand for the race. Linares, an educator and Air Force veteran, reported raising more than $24,000 in the first quarter but has about $20,000 in her war chest.

The other candidate in the race is Republican David Espinosa, who has worked in the information technology sector and served on boards including the Washoe County Citizen Advisory Board. He reported raising $7,000 in the first quarter of the year and has about $500 on hand.

The winner of the three-way contest will face off against Daly, who does not have primary challengers. He raised $31,000 in the first quarter and has $98,000 cash on hand.

Assembly District 36

Appointed to fill the seat of brothel owner Dennis Hof — who won this Pahrump-area seat in 2018 despite dying weeks before the election — Republican Assemblyman Gregory Hafen II is facing a primary challenge from Dr. Joseph Bradley, who ran for the district in 2018.

Hafen, a fifth generation Nevadan and general manager of a Pahrump water utility company, and has been endorsed by multiple sitting Republican lawmakers, the National Rifle Association and was named “Rural Chair” of President Donald Trump’s re-election campaign in Nevada.

Hafen has raised nearly $89,000 since the start of the election cycle, including $26,600 in the last reporting period, and has more than $55,000 in cash on hand.

His primary opponent is Bradley, a licensed chiropractor and substance abuse specialist with offices in Las Vegas and Pahrump. He ran for the seat in 2018, coming in third in the Republican primary behind Hof and former Assemblyman James Oscarson.

Bradley has raised more than $68,000 in his bid for the Assembly seat since 2019, and had more than $43,000 in cash on hand at the end of the reporting period.

Bradley’s campaign has tried to tie Hafen to Democratic Gov. Steve Sisolak, who as a member of the Clark County Commission voted on a replacement candidate after Hof’s death. Sisolak did vote to appoint Hafen to the seat, but the decision was essentially made by the Nye County Commission because of Nevada’s laws on appointing a new lawmaker after an incumbent leaves office or passes away. Hafen was appointed to the seat with support from 16 of 17 county commissioners in the three counties that the Assembly district covers.

Because no Democrats or other party candidates filed to run in the district, the winner of the primary will essentially win a spot in the 2021 Legislature.

Assembly District 37

A crowded field of well-funded Republican candidates are duking it out in a competitive primary to take on incumbent Democrat Shea Backus, one of several suburban Las Vegas districts Republicans hope to win back after the 2018 midterms. Voter registration numbers in the district are nearly equal: 38.1 percent registered Democrats 35.7 percent registered Republicans and 20.5 percent nonpartisan.

Four Republican candidates filed to run in the district, including two former congressional candidates who have each raised more than six-figures in contributions: Andy Matthews and Michelle Mortensen.

Matthews is the former president of the Nevada Policy Research Institute, a libertarian-leaning think tank and was former Attorney General Adam Laxalt’s policy director for his failed 2018 gubernatorial run. He has been endorsed by a bevy of Nevada and national Republicans, including Laxalt, several Trump campaign officials including Corey Lewandowski, Las Vegas City Councilwoman Michele Fiore and several current and former state lawmakers.

Matthews has also been one of the top legislative fundraisers during the 2020 election cycle, outraising all other Republican Assembly candidates including current office-holders. For the first reporting period of 2020, he reported raising nearly $35,000, but has raised nearly $189,000 since the start of 2019 and has early $115,000 in cash on hand.

Mortensen, a former television reporter who ran for Congress in 2018, has also been a prolific fundraiser. She reported raising about $12,500 during the first fundraising period of 2020, with more than $115,000 raised since the start of 2019 and had more than $92,000 in cash on hand at the end of the last reporting period.

But they won’t be alone on the primary ballot. Jacob Deaville, a former UNLV college Republican chair and political activist, has raised more than $19,600 since the start of 2019 and had roughly $9,400 in cash on hand at the end of the reporting period. Another Republican candidate, Lisa Noeth, has not filed any campaign finance reports.

The primary election winner will get to challenge incumbent Shea Backus, who wrested the seat from Republican Jim Marchant in the 2018 election by a 135-vote margin. She reported raising more than $52,000 over the first fundraising period, and has more than $108,000 in cash on hand. Backus, an attorney, did not draw a primary challenger.

Assembly District 40

Former Assemblyman P.K. O’Neill is making a comeback bid after serving one term in the Assembly in 2015 and losing re-election in a campaign focused on his controversial vote for Republican Gov. Brian Sandoval’s tax package.

Two-term incumbent Al Kramer decided at the last minute not to seek re-election in the district, which includes Carson City and portions of Washoe Valley. According to The Nevada Appeal, he said he and his wife need to take care of her 94-year-old mother in Ohio and attend to their own health issues, and will not be in Carson City often enough to serve in the Legislature.

O’Neill is a former law enforcement officer who previously served in the Nevada Department of Public Safety. But his path back to the statehouse is complicated by a primary challenge from the right from Day Williams, a lawyer who is running on a platform of repealing the Commerce Tax that O’Neill supported.

O’Neill has the fundraising advantage, raising more than $13,000 in the first quarter and reporting about $10,000 cash on hand. Williams reported raising about $2,300 and has about $1,200 in the bank.

Whoever wins the Republican primary is likely to win in the general — Republicans have a nearly 15 percentage point advantage in the district. The three Democrats in the race are former Carson City Library director Sena Loyd, software engineer Derek Ray Morgan and LGBTQ rights advocate Sherrie Scaffidi, none of whom have more than $500 cash on hand.

Other races that have a primary

  • Senate District 11: Republican Edgar Miron Galindo, who has been endorsed by the Senate Republican Caucus, faces off against Joshua Wendell. However, the winner faces an uphill battle against Democratic state Sen. Dallas Harris in the general election in this overwhelmingly Democratic district in Spring Valley, where Democrats have a 19.5 percentage point voter registration advantage over Republicans.
  • Senate District 18: Democrat Liz Becker, who has been endorsed by the Senate Democratic Caucus, faces Ron Bilodeau in the primary. The winner will go on to face Republican state Sen. Scott Hammond in this lean Republican northwest Las Vegas Assembly district, where Republicans have a 3 percentage point voter registration advantage over Democrats.
  • Assembly District 5: Republicans Mac Miller, Retha Randolph and Mitchell Tracy face off in the primary. But they’ll have a tough time in the general election against Democratic Assemblywoman Brittney Miller in this district, where Democrats have a 9 percentage point voter registration advantage over Republicans.
  • Assembly District 6: Democrat Shondra Summers-Armstrong is running with the backing of the Assembly Democratic Caucus to represent this Assembly District that encompasses the historic Westside of Las Vegas. She faces one opponent, William E. Robinson II, in the primary. There are also two Republicans, Katie Duncan and Geraldine Lewis, who will face off in their own primary. The winner of the Democratic primary is all but guaranteed to defeat the winner of the Republican primary in the general election, as Democrats have a 52.5 percentage point voter registration advantage over Republicans in the district.
  • Assembly District 10: After being appointed to the seat in 2018, Democratic Assemblywoman Rochelle Nguyen is running for her first election in this overwhelmingly Democratic district, where there are more than twice as many Democrats as Republicans. Nguyen has one primary challenger, Jesse “Jake” Holder. The two other candidates in the race, Independent American Jonathan Friedrich and Republican Chris Hisgen, do not face primary challenges. Democrats are likely to retain control of this seat in November because of their overwhelming voter registration advantage.
  • Assembly District 14: Democratic Assemblywoman Maggie Carlton is running for her sixth and final term in this East Las Vegas Assembly district, where Democrats make up more than half of all registered voters. She faces a primary challenge from James Fennell II. The third candidate in the race, Libertarian Robert Wayerski, does not face a primary. With only 163 registered libertarians in the district, Democrats are all but guaranteed to hold onto this seat in November.
  • Assembly District 15: Democratic Assemblyman Howard Watts is running for re-election in this East Las Vegas Assembly district. He faces a primary challenge from Democrat Burke Andersson. A third candidate in the race, Republican Stan Vaughan, does not have a primary. Democrats are overwhelmingly likely to win this seat in the general election as they hold a 30.8 percentage point voter registration advantage over Republicans.
  • Assembly District 17: Democrat Clara “Claire” Thomas is running with the backing of the Assembly Democratic Caucus in this overwhelmingly Democratic North Las Vegas Assembly district and does not face a primary. Two Republican candidates, Sylvia Liberty Creviston and Jack Polcyn, will face off in June. However, Thomas is likely to win the general election come November because of Democrats’ voter registration advantage.
  • Assembly District 20: Democrat David Orentilcher is running with the backing of the Assembly Democratic caucus but faces three other Democrats in the primary: Zachary Logan, Michael McAuliffe and Emily Smith. Whoever wins the primary is guaranteed to win the general election as there are no Republican or third-party candidates running in the race.
  • Assembly District 26: Republican Assemblywoman Lisa Krasner faces one Republican challenger, Dale Conner, in her re-election bid for this overwhelmingly Republican Assembly district where Republicans hold a 10.7 percentage point registration advantage over Democrats. Though one Democrat, Vance Alm, is running for this seat, Republicans are likely to hold onto this seat come November.
  • Assembly District 29: Democratic Assemblywoman Lesley Cohen is running for re-election to this Henderson Assembly district, where Democrats hold a narrow 5.6 percentage point voter registration advantage over Republicans. While she doesn’t have a primary challenge, she will face one of two Republicans, Steven Delisle or Troy Archer, in the general election.
  • Assembly District 30: Democrat Natha Anderson is running with the backing of the Assembly Democratic Caucus to represent this Sparks Assembly seat where Democrats hold a 10.2 percentage point voter registration advantage over Republicans. She will face fellow Democrat Lea Moser in the primary. The winner is likely to win the general election over Republican Randy Hoff and Independent American Charlene Young because of Democrats’ significant voter registration advantage in the district.
  • Assembly District 35: Democratic Assemblywoman Michelle Gorelow is running for re-election in this southwest Las Vegas Assembly district, where Democrats hold a 8.5 percentage point voter registration advantage over Republicans. She does not face a primary challenge. However, two Republicans, Jay Calhoun and Claudia Kingtigh, will face off in a June primary. Gorelow will face the winner of that primary, as well as nonpartisan Philip “Doc Phil” Paleracio in November, though she is likely to win because of the Democratic voter registration advantage in the district.
  • Assembly District 38: Republican Assemblywoman Robin Titus faces a primary challenge from Jeff Ulrich in this overwhelmingly Republican rural Assembly district, where there are more than twice as many registered Republicans as Democrats.

Live Blog: Candidates make it official during Nevada’s two-week candidate filing period

Nevada kicked off a two-week period March 2 in which candidates who are seeking offices other than as judges must file paperwork to appear on the ballot.

Candidates must appear in person, pay a filing fee, show identification and sign paperwork to complete the transaction. For seats within a single county, candidates file at that county clerk’s office; for multi-county seats, they file with the Nevada Secretary of State.

The filing period is a major step for candidates to make their bids official, even though many have already announced their candidacy and have started campaigning. Judicial candidates had a separate filing period in January.

The primary election is June 9, and early voting runs from May 23 to June 5. The general election is Nov. 3, with an early voting period that runs from Oct. 17-30.

Below are highlights from the candidate filing period, as well as a spreadsheet of filed candidates. Check back over the next two weeks for updates.

Teresa Benitez-Thompson, Natha Anderson and Skip Daly after filing to run as Democrats in the Assembly on March 2, 2020. Photo by Jazmin Orozco-Rodriguez.

9:10 p.m.: Assembly candidates from rural, Northern Nevada file for office

Candidates filing for legislative seats in Northern Nevada took a less charitable view than their southern counterparts of the Clark County teacher union’s efforts to hike sales tax rates and gaming tax rates by statewide ballot initiative.

While legislative leaders in Las Vegas avoided direct criticism of the Clark County Education Association’s proposal to raise more than a billion dollars through the two tax increases, northern Democrats were more blunt in their assessment.

“I'm not a big fan of constitutional amendments or ballot measures,” said Skip Daly, who filed to run for his Assembly seat. “I'm not saying that they're off base and that it may not be needed, but I think you should give the Legislature a chance to do his job.”

He said lawmakers would have the chance to weigh the pros and cons of various tax increases more than the average citizen would with a ballot measure. And he suggested mining might be a better route than a dramatic increase on the gaming tax.

“It's easy to pick on gaming,” he said. “The miners have been getting a free ride for 50 plus years now.”

Assembly candidate Natha Anderson, a teacher and lobbyist for the Nevada State Education Association — the state union from which CCEA split — also opposed the proposed ballot measures. She said she learned from a 2014 tax hike ballot measure that failed by a 4-to-1 margin, and also a 2010 measure promoted by her union in 2010 — IP1 — whose revenue has since been diverted to pay for other state needs aside from education.

“I've got problems with it … there's no guarantee it's going to education. We don't know where else it's going to go,” she said. She pointed out that factors, such as coronavirus, that could affect casino revenue. “Another concern I have is with gaming being so dependent upon so many other areas that are outside the control of people in Nevada.”

Teresa Benitez-Thompson, the Democratic majority leader who has served in the Assembly for a decade, said she learned the challenges of promoting a sales tax increase when she worked to enact one a few years ago in Washoe County.

“The polling at that time told us that the appetite was very, very low for such increases. So it took a coalition of business, community members, private community members and electeds coming together to work on that ballot initiative, and ultimately to see it succeed,” she said.

“And so that's absolutely one of the things I'll be watching for. Is this going to be something that's supported equally by the people and by the business community?”

Skip Daly filing to run as a Democrat in the Assembly on March 2, 2020. Photo by Jazmin Orozco-Rodriguez.

Assembly members Benitez-Thompson and Daly filed for re-election at the Washoe County Government Center. Anderson filed for the seat held by Greg Smith, who was appointed during the 2019 session but is not seeking to retain the seat.

Republican Sandra Linares filed to run against Daly, and Republican Barb Hawn filed to challenge Benitez-Thompson.

Republican Lisa Krasner filed for re-election, and Democrat Wendy Jauregui-Jackins, whose sister is an assemblywoman, filed to run for the seat held by Republican Sen. Heidi Gansert.

In rural districts, Assembly members John Ellison, Jim Wheeler, Al Kramer and Gregory Hafen filed for re-election with the Nevada Secretary of State. Democrat Derek Morgan also filed for Assembly District 40, which is currently held by Kramer.

Republican Sen. Pete Goicoechea, who represents a vast rural district, is also seeking re-election.

Rep. Steven Horsford also filed to run for re-election to the 4th Congressional District. Four people challenging Horsford or 2nd Congressional District Rep. Mark Amodei also filed.

“Despite the many distractions taking place in Washington, I remain focused on the issues that matter most to my constituents,” Horsford said in a statement. “I take my responsibility to serve the people of Nevada seriously.”

— Michelle Rindels

Nevada Democratic Assembly Speaker Jason Frierson, center, addresses the media and public with fellow democrat assembly candidates outside Clark County Government Center Monday, March 2, 2020, in Las Vegas. (Photo by Ronda Churchill for The Nevada Independent)

4:25 p.m.: Assembly, Senate candidates file in Clark County

Democratic leaders from the Assembly and Senate posed for photos, hugged and caught up with their fellow state lawmakers — along with those hoping to become their colleagues — Monday afternoon at the Clark County Government Center.

The quasi-reunion happened on the first day of candidate filing, kicking off a campaign season that will see Democrats try to hang onto their majorities in both houses of the Legislature. But Assembly Speaker Jason Frierson and Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro painted an optimistic portrait of that quest heading into the election cycle.

“We’re going to fight hard for it,” Frierson said of maintaining the Assembly’s Democratic supermajority. “We realize we have a couple of tight races, and I think that we are committed to managing the advancement of good policies.”

Before heading in to file the candidacy paperwork, Frierson and Cannizzaro rattled off a list of Democratic accomplishments from the 2019 Legislature and vowed to move the needle forward in 2021. They cited progress with climate change, surprise medical billing, prescription drug pricing, minimum wage and education funding as some examples.

At least some of those issues, though, likely will re-emerge during the next legislative session. The Clark County Education Association already has filed two initiative petitions that seek to increase the gaming tax and sales tax to significantly boost K-12 education funding.

The Democratic leaders have largely avoided directly addressing the union-led effort, and they did so again Monday.

“I’m not in charge of ballot initiatives,” Frierson said. “What I support is us doing the right thing in the Legislature to advance good policies. And, as I said earlier, I think the responsible thing to do for us is to put pressure on our colleagues who have not quite gotten there yet to say, ‘This is worthwhile, and we need to do our jobs and provide for our basic community’s needs.’ That’s going to be our focus.”

Cannizzaro echoed that sentiment, saying the conversation surrounding education funding is far from over despite increases to the per-pupil amount and more money for school safety. 

“Education funding remains something we’ll continue to talk about as we go into this election cycle and well into this next session,” she said.

But the first hurdle is the general election, which could be affected by the presidential race and turnout. Presidential elections can have a coattails effect, inspiring voters to select candidates of a certain party all the way down the ballot, or a balancing effect, in which people cast votes for the opposite party on down-ballot races as a hedge to prevent too much of an ideological lean.

Frierson said it’s too early to tell what the effect might be this year, but he urged voters to look at the larger picture.

“I think that folks who are concerned about which candidate ultimately prevails need to remember, unlike four years ago, where it was largely unknown what would happen, we’ve now seen that it’s not just about your candidate,” he said. “It’s about the makeup of the federal bench. It’s about climate change. It’s about things that we have to live with for generations.”

The following Democratic candidates backed by the Nevada Senate Democratic Caucus filed in Clark County on Monday afternoon: Pat Spearman (Senate District 1); Chris Brooks (Senate District 3); Dina Neal (Senate District 4); Kristee Watson (Senate District 5); Nicole Cannizzaro (Senate District 6); Roberta Lange (Senate District 7); and Dallas Harris (Senate District 11.)

Likewise, these were the Democratic candidates endorsed by the Nevada Assembly Democratic Caucus who also filed Monday in Clark County: Daniele Monroe-Moreno (Assembly District 1); Selena Torres (Assembly District 3); Connie Munk (Assembly District 4); Brittney Miller (Assembly District 5); Shondra Summers-Armstrong (Assembly District 6); Cameron Miller (Assembly District 7); Jason Frierson (Assembly District 8); Steve Yeager (Assembly District 9); Rochelle Nguyen (Assembly District 10); Bea Duran (Assembly District 11); Susie Martinez (Assembly District 12); Maggie Carlton (Assembly District 14); Howard Watts (Assembly District 15); Clara Thomas (Assembly District 17); David Orentlicher (Assembly District 20); Elaine Marzola (Assembly District 21); Edgar Flores (Assembly District 28); Lesley Cohen (Assembly District 29); Shannon Bilbray-Axelrod (Assembly District 34); Michelle Gorelow (Assembly District 35); Shea Backus (Assembly District 37); Alexander Assefa (Assembly District 42.) 

It wasn’t just Democrats heading to the Clark County Government Center for filing. Andy Matthews, past president of the Nevada Policy Research Institute, announced in a news release that he had filed as a Republican for the Assembly seat in District 37.  

“Today marks an important milestone in our campaign to fight for Nevada’s future,” Matthews said in a statement. “I continue to be overwhelmed and honored by the incredible support our campaign is attracting, and I’m thrilled today to take this crucial step toward victory this year.” 

Assembly Republicans also tweeted a photo of several incumbents — Melissa Hardy (Assembly District 22), Chris Edwards (Assembly District 19), Glen Leavitt (Assembly District 23), Tom Roberts (Assembly District 13) and Gregory Hafen (Assembly District 36) — filing for candidacy Monday in Clark County.

For a full list of candidates who filed in Clark County on Monday, click here

— Jackie Valley and Shannon Miller

‘A lot of little things’: Incremental health policy changes favored over sweeping reform in 2019 legislative session

Lawmakers this session took patients out of the middle of negotiations between providers and insurance companies over out-of-network hospital bills in a landmark bill decades in the making and codified the Affordable Care Act’s protections for people with pre-existing conditions amid ongoing threats at the federal level.

But, by and large, the changes that the Legislature pursued this year to improve health care in the state weren’t big or flashy. Instead, lawmakers passed a number of incremental changes — such as establishing a maternal mortality review panel, allocating additional state dollars for family planning services and commissioning studies on prescription drugs and a state public option — that experts say will slowly begin to move the needle on health care.

“There were some little tweaks that were made that are going to have a big impact,” said Catherine O’Mara, executive director of the Nevada State Medical Association. “I think sometimes it doesn’t seem that exciting because there’s not these huge reform bills but, in the aggregate, there were a lot of little things that were done that are actually going to positively impact people.”

Part of that emphasis on smaller health policy items over the sweeping change that had seemed possible when a Medicaid buy-in proposal was the subject of conversations between the 2017 and 2019 legislative sessions was signaled early on by Gov. Steve Sisolak, who during his campaign promised the creation of a Patient Protection Commission charged with a top-to-bottom review of health care in the Silver State.

When Sisolak first proposed it last year, the commission was framed as a blue-ribbon panel that would bring together patients, doctors and other policymakers and, after convening for 100 days, recommend changes to be implemented by the Legislature.

In light of that, there was initially some speculation that the panel would operate similarly to an advisory panel that Sisolak established in January to map out sweeping regulatory changes to the marijuana industry. But Sisolak took a different tack with the Patient Protection Commission, proposing legislation, SB544, to create that body in mid-May and charging the body to return to the 2021 legislative session with its recommendations in the form of two bill draft requests.

“For a first-session governor to create a Patient Protection Commission I think is really prudent,” O’Mara said. “The administration didn’t just jump in and say, ‘We’re going to change health care.’ He said, ‘We’re going to jump in and hear from everybody and figure out where all the pain points are and go from there.’”

Some in the industry see a model for the commission in the success of the landmark surprise emergency room billing legislation that passed this session, which was a byproduct of extensive conversations between insurers, hospitals and doctors between sessions and a mandate from Assembly Speaker Jason Frierson that they reach a compromise. Industry representatives who were a part of those conversations said they weren’t completely happy with the end result, but it was something that they were willing to live with.

“The surprise billing issue has been around and hasn’t come to any level of resolution for years, and a giant step was taken in that bill passed,” said Tom Clark, a lobbyist for the Nevada Association of Health Plans. “Kudos to Assemblyman Frierson, the speaker, for taking that bull by the horns and really making sure that all of the stakeholders got together and figured that out.”

Similarly, Sisolak has made it clear that the commission, an 11-member panel made up of industry and patient representatives, will be a working body. He warned at an industry briefing before the legislation was introduced that the overall goal is compromise, and anyone not working toward that could those their seat at the table.

“I think the way it’s being structured is going to give all sides of the issue a chance to be at the table and facilitate the development of good regulation and good legislation, whichever the case may be,” said Bill Welch, president and CEO of the Nevada Hospital Association.

Questions still remain about how the body will work with the interim health committee, a panel of lawmakers that studies issues between sessions to develop policy to bring forward when the Legislature meets again and with two health-care studies that have been commissioned. But industry representatives — from doctors and hospitals to insurers and pharmaceutical companies — are optimistic about the commission’s potential.

“For our part, we want to come to the table with proposed solutions and ideas and an openness to address the challenges Nevada’s health-care system is facing,” said Priscilla VanderVeer, a spokeswoman for the national drug lobbying association Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, in an email. “We believe this is a real opportunity to work together across the broader health-care system and the political spectrum to enact real change and we look forward to being a part of it.”

Part of that optimism comes from the hope that the commission will look at the root cause of some of the state’s health-care ills with an eye toward prevention and mitigation early on to prevent poor health-care outcomes down the line. For instance, lawmakers approved rate bumps for hospitals providing intensive care to some of the state’s sickest babies, but the broader question of how to expand access to prenatal care so those babies are born healthy remains.

“When I hear from hospitals or skilled nursing facilities or certain provider types, their messaging is very good, but we need to be looking at the whole landscape of health care and where we need to move the dial and where the opportunity is,” said Richard Whitley, director of the Department of Health and Human Services. “If it can be prevented, if we can intervene early, we ought to intervene.”

Here’s a look at some of the other health policies that passed this session, and others that didn’t:

Studying (again) a state public option

A last-minute bill, SCR10, introduced by Senate Majority Leader Nicole Cannizzaro is tasking the Legislative Commission with studying the feasibility of allowing Nevadans to buy into the Public Employee Benefits Plan, or PEBP, which provides health insurance to state workers.

Cheryl Bruce, executive director of the Nevada Senate Democratic Caucus, framed the legislation as a way for the Legislature to continue to explore the idea of a public option. Conversations on the topic waned following the resignation of Democratic Assemblyman Mike Sprinkle, who had led the interim conversations on a Medicaid buy-in proposal.

“We think this is a good first step to get more information before moving forward with any future legislation,” Bruce said in a text message.

Some in the industry have raised concerns that the legislation is too narrow because it specifically targets the interim study to the feasibility of a PEBP buy-in and that it focuses on access to insurance without also targeting access to care.

“I did talk with the sponsor of the bill, and they assured me that some of the things I wanted to amend into the bill and include the bill are generically incorporated in the bill already,” Welch, the hospital association CEO, said. “I want to make sure they are focusing on the full picture.”

The overarching question that the study will have to address is who a public option plan aims to help. Conversations about increasing access to health insurance in Nevada have generally centered around increasing access to rural residents who only have one plan available to them for purchase on the exchange, improving access to residents across the state who are increasingly priced out of exchange plans or targeting the state’s undocumented population, which faces severe barriers to accessing insurance and care.

Before Sprinkle’s resignation, some of the conversations around Medicaid buy-in focused on how the proposal could help the state’s rural residents and possibly other populations on a limited basis.

“At the end of the day I will be shocked if this study shows much more than that again. I only say that because if you bring all of this uninsured population to the state’s health benefit plan it will change your actuarial mix of who are insured,” Welch said. “You’re going to be bringing in individuals potentially who have chronic medical conditions that will change how you actually set your premiums.”

Codification and stabilization of the Affordable Care Act

The most sweeping bill related to the Affordable Care Act that passed this session was AB170, which codified the federal health-care law’s protections for people with pre-existing conditions into state law. A similar measure last session was vetoed by former Gov. Brian Sandoval, who said at the time that it would have locked into law “requirements that may be unnecessary, imprudent, or simply unaffordable in the years to come.”

Approval of the legislation comes amid an ongoing legal challenge to the Affordable Care Act on the federal level that could strike down the law entirely, including its popular pre-existing condition protections.

“Who knows if the federal administration is ever going to actually overturn the Affordable Care Act, but they certainly are chipping away pieces of it,” said Elisa Cafferata, lobbyist for Planned Parenthood. “It’s good to have those protections in place because what everybody really liked about the Affordable Health Care was the preventative health care and pre-existing conditions.”

The compromise pre-existing condition language was first crafted a different bill spearheaded by Democratic Sen. Julia Ratti who, as chair of the Senate Health and Human Services Committee, worked to ensure the legislation would codify the protections in the Affordable Care Act as they stand now — no more and no less. The work on that bill, SB235, was then folded into Democratic Assemblywoman Ellen Spiegel’s AB170.

The legislation also requires health insurance plans to provide to the Governor’s Office for Consumer Health Assistance the phone number of a navigator or case manager who can help patients make an appointment with a doctor in a timely fashion. The bill had initially proposed requiring insurance companies to cover out-of-network doctor’s visits at no additional cost to patients if no in-network physician was readily accessible, but was amended down in a compromise with insurance companies.

Though it’s a small change, those in the health-care industry say it stands to improve access to care for patients.

“Our take is that AB170 is a very simple little bill that will actually have a practical impact in helping patients,” O’Mara said. “It’s one of those bills that isn’t flashy but will make a difference.”

The Legislature also passed two Affordable Care Act stabilization bills — SB481 and SB482 — that place additional restrictions on two types of health insurance plans with potentially skimpier coverage than that required under the federal health-care law and direct the state to apply for a federal innovation waiver to allow the state to explore other options to stabilize the individual health insurance market.

Heather Korbulic, executive director of the Silver State Health Insurance Exchange, said that together the bills “could have a dramatic impact on getting people connected to plans that are right for their needs.”

Lawmakers additionally approved the exchange’s budget, which included the funding necessary to become an entirely state-based exchange instead of the hybrid model that the exchange has been operating under now. Exchange officials have said that a Nevada-run platform will both save the state money and allow them to know who is actually purchasing individual plans through the exchange and better target their outreach.

“That itself lends a lot of autonomy and control,” Korbulic said. “Lawmakers were cognizant of that potential flexibility.”

Changes for hospitals

Lawmakers passed two bills this session that strike at the core of what it means to be a hospital and what services those facilities should and ought to provide.

One of them, Democratic Assemblywoman Maggie Carlton’s AB317, shifts the responsibility of determining whether to establish any additional trauma centers from the local level to the state. It comes amid renewed discussions over Southern Nevada’s trauma need and whether to approve additional trauma centers. Welch said that the change “might potentially create some additional time to make those determinations going forward” but that “overall the approach is a balanced approach.”

The legislation also requires every off campus facility that a hospital operates — such as a microhospital or freestanding emergency department — to have a unique national provider identifier number. The goal is to help the state better track and understand how those facilities are utilized compared to traditional hospitals.

Another bill advocated for by the hospital association, Democratic Assemblywoman Rochelle Nguyen’s AB232, requires all hospitals in the state to be certified by the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The legislation specifically targets a tourist-focused microhospital near the Strip, Elite Medical Center, which doesn’t bill Medicaid or Medicare.

In hearings on the bill, Elite argued that its business model isn’t based around providing care to Medicaid and Medicare patients and that it would rather write off the cost of uncompensated care it provides to those individuals than go through the onerous process to become Medicaid and Medicare participating. But lawmakers sided with the hospital association, which argued that hospitals should have the responsibility of taking care of all patients.

“We’re not opposed to microhospitals,” Welch said. “We’re supportive of microhospitals, but we’re supportive of them coming in and being a part of the integrated health-care delivery system.”

The legislation gives Elite until July 1, 2021 to be certified by CMS.

The Legislature also took steps to address the financial needs of the state’s hospitals, which have long argued that they are increasingly strained by the number of Medicaid patients they treat. Lawmakers approved a 25 percent bump in the per diem Medicaid rate to care for babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and a 15 percent bump in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) rates to ensure that hospitals are able to maintain the current level of services that they are providing to the community.

Welch said the hospitals are “ecstatic” about the increases.

“What it is going to do is ensure that those beds that we do have are not going to close, because there has been a lot of discussion over the last 18 months about whether certain hospitals were going to be able to continue providing services at that rate,” Welch said.

Hospitals also got a last-minute boost in the form of SB528, an appropriations bill passed in the final two hours of the legislative session that included a 2.5 percent increase to the state’s acute care per diem rate for Medicaid. Welch said that he had asked for a 20 percent increase at the beginning of the session but didn’t know whether hospitals would get any rate bump until those final minutes.

“Between those three things, that will help us immensely,” Welch said. “It won’t get us anywhere near cost, but at least it’s moving us in the right direction and hopefully will help us be able to sustain the services.”

After negotiation between proponents and the hospitals, lawmakers also passed SB364, Democratic Sen. David Parks’s bill requiring hospitals to identify patients by their preferred name and pronouns, representing a significant victory for the state’s transgender community.

Drilling down on drug costs

At the beginning of the session, there were several sweeping proposals to tackle the high cost of prescription drugs, including a mandate that the middlemen in the drug pricing process pass along rebates they negotiate with drug manufacturers to consumers and a Prescription Drug Affordability Board with the ability to examine high cost prescription drugs and limit what payers can spend on them.

Neither of those ambitious proposals moved forward this session, but lawmakers did vote to expand a diabetes drug transparency bill passed in 2017 to require manufacturers of asthma drugs and drug pricing middlemen, or pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs), disclose certain costs and profits to the state.

The bill, Democratic Sen. Yvanna Cancela’s SB262, requires manufacturers of asthma drugs whose prices have increased significantly in the past year or two to report specific data to the state for each drug including the cost of producing it, administrative expenditures such as marketing and advertising costs, profit earned, financial assistance provided to help patients, and coupons and rebates offered. PBMs are also required to report any rebates they negotiated and any profits they retained associated with asthma drugs that experienced significant price increases.

“The hundreds of thousands of Nevadans living with asthma deserve to know that the price they’re paying for their medication they need to breathe is fair, and this bill will help shed some light on factors affecting these drug prices,” Sisolak said at a bill signing last month.

But drug manufacturers, who sued over the diabetes drug transparency legislation two years ago, raised concerns during hearings on the bill that regulations adopted by the state in 2018 to keep confidential information companies deem to be trade-secret protected would only apply to diabetes drug reporting and not the new asthma drug reporting.

VanderVeer, the PhRMA spokeswoman, said that she couldn’t speculate on whether there will be litigation related to the new asthma drug transparency law.

“We will be closely monitoring and engaging in the regulatory process,” VanderVeer said.

Another bill, Republican Assemblywoman Melissa Hardy’s AB141, builds on some of the prohibitions on gag rules inserted by PBMs into contracts with pharmacists — preventing them from disclosing certain information to patients — passed in the 2017 session. The legislation prevents PBMs from stopping a pharmacist from providing information to patients about the availability of a less expensive drug and from penalizing a pharmacist for selling a less expensive generic drug to a person.

Lawmakers, in passing Cancela’s SB276, have also directed the Legislative Commission to appoint a committee to conduct an interim study concerning the issue of the costs of prescription drugs, including the impact the PBM rebates have on prices.

VanderVeer said that PhRMA was “glad to see a discussion about the broader pharmaceutical supply chain taking place in Nevada this year,” though the association still believes it was unfairly targeted in 2019.

“While we continued to see a one-sided political attack that took place in 2017, we are glad that there was some recognition of the broader pharmaceutical supply chain and the importance of protecting patients’ access to needed medicines and the future development of new treatments and cures,” VanderVeer said.

Access to care

Lawmakers tackled a number of broader access to care issues this session, too, including patients’ ability to access mental health, dental and family planning services.

One bill, which emerged from one of the regional behavioral health policy boards created by the Legislature in 2017, establishes a new endorsement for psychiatric hospitals to be deemed a crisis stabilization facility and mandates that those stabilization services be covered under Medicaid. The need for crisis mental health services in the state was brought into sharp focus in 2018 when WestCare abruptly closed its crisis triage center in Reno and Clark County had to shell out additional funding to keep the doors of the company’s Las Vegas crisis triage center open.

“These could be game changers from the impact they could have on reducing emergency room and jail holds on patients,” said Chuck Duarte, CEO of Community Health Alliance and chair of the Washoe Regional Behavioral Health Policy Board. “I’m hopeful we’ll see some of these facilities developing in Nevada. I think they’ll have a significant impact on unwanted institutionalization.”

The bill, AB66, also requires the state to adopt regulations to license and regulate providers of nonemergency secure behavioral health transportation services to transport people experiencing a mental health crisis. Right now, a significant portion of the burden of transporting individuals undergoing a mental health crisis falls on law enforcement, particularly in rural Nevada.

Another piece of legislation passed, Cannizzaro’s SB425, requires Medicaid to provide additional home and community-based services, including tenancy support services. Under federal law, states are allowed to implement tenancy support services for people who are elderly or disabled.

“It doesn’t solve the housing problem” Duarte said. “But this establishes the sustainable revenue stream.”

Other bills drilled down into the issue of access to dental care. One of them, Ratti’s SB366, establishes a new mid-level dental provider type, known as dental therapists, who will be allowed to perform a number of routine dental procedures currently performed only by dentists, including extracting loose teeth, filling cavities and applying sealants.

The dental therapists will only be allowed to practice in underserved areas, including federally qualified health centers, rural health clinics, tribal health clinics, and any other clinics that primarily serve Medicaid patients or other low-income, uninsured individuals.

Duarte said that it “makes a lot of sense” for federally qualified health centers, including Community Health Alliance, to be able to lean on dental therapists to provide services, particularly when non-emergency adult dental services are not covered by Medicaid in Nevada.

“Right now with Medicaid not covering adult dental services, it’s hard to provide comprehensive care to adults without insurance,” Duarte said.

Lawmakers also approved AB223, sponsored by Democratic Assemblywoman Dina Neal, requiring the Department of Health and Human Services to seek permission from the federal government to establish a pilot program to provide dental care to adults with diabetes.

Women’s reproductive rights were another key focus for lawmakers this session with the passage of SB179, a bill sponsored by Cancela that removes longstanding criminal penalties on abortion and removes requirements that doctors explain to women the emotional implications of undergoing the procedure, and SB94, which clarifies how state family planning dollars can be spent. Sisolak also allocated and lawmakers approved $6 million in state family planning funds this session.

“It’s going to significantly increase the access to family planning services around the state,” Cafferata, the Planned Parenthood lobbyist, said. “Especially for rural Nevada that bill is going to be significant.”

One family planning bill that did not advance last-minute was Cannizzaro’s SB361, which would have required the state’s chief medical officer to issue a standing order allowing for self-administered birth control, essentially allowing patients to skip a doctor’s visit and go straight to the pharmacy for their medication. Those involved with the legislation said there were some last-minute tweaks to the bill and that lawmakers ran out of time to get the bill finalized.

But Whitley, the director of the Department of Health and Human Services, said it may be possible for the state to take action on the issue in the interim, particularly to increase access to birth control in communities where it’s difficult to get in to see a doctor.

“The Board of Pharmacy has authority to explore their existing authority through regulation for that,” Whitley said. “I’d like to work with them to see if there is something we can do since we do know that much of our state is a health-care workforce shortage area.”

Public health solutions

Beyond the industry-specific changes they made, lawmakers also signaled their interest in focusing on public health issues, from maternal mortality to vaping.

AB169, sponsored by Democratic Assemblywoman Daniele Monroe-Moreno, established a maternal mortality review panel amid rising concerns nationally over the recent rise of maternal deaths and complications. To fund the board, Nevada is applying to the federal government for a slice of a $43.5 million grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention dedicated to investigating the causes of pregnancy-related deaths and complications.

“It wasn’t controversial at all but the Maternal Mortality Review Board, which actually passed quite early, was a really an important step for the state to take,” Cafferata said. “It was one of those quieter bills, because it didn’t have a lot of controversy around it, but I think it will be a significant bill for all of us.”

Lawmakers also made changes to an opioid prescribing law passed in 2017 that was aimed at tamping down on the overprescription of opioids but that doctors said was unduly burdensome and harmful to patient care. The new bill, AB239, allows providers more discretion when writing prescriptions for controlled substances to treat acute pain.

Another bill, Ratti’s SB263, places a 30 percent tax on e-cigarettes and their accessories and directs a significant portion of the $8 million a year in revenue it is projected to generate back to vaping prevention activities. Whitley said the legislation puts Nevada ahead of the curve when it comes to prevention in this area.

“[It] is really a first in our state for taking a behavior and not waiting” for the FDA to take action, Whitley said. “If you look at the history of tobacco use or alcohol use or gambling or other behaviors that can in excess cause harm, really the response in vaping, we’re with the group of states that are ahead in starting to tackle this.”

A final public health-focused bill to establish an all-payer health insurance claims database, SB472, failed to move forward in the final minutes of the session. The bill would have required the state to compile a database of billing information from insurance companies to better understand health-care costs.

Whitley said that he believes it was another case where lawmakers ran out of time, but that he’s already exploring options for the department to pursue such a database on its own in the interim in conjunction with the UNLV School of Public Health.

“An all-payer database would allow us to actually see where services are occurring and where maybe we need to give focus,” Whitley said. “We’re going to continue to work with community partners and the university to see if we can do it as a voluntary database to build the system.”